Evaluation of Industrial Catalysts

  • Martin Schmal


Industrial catalysts are often subjected to drastic conditions affecting its performance and modifying their properties. It is aimed to describe the catalysts of industrial processes, but understanding the changes undergone during the process and caused by different thermal treatments or chemical and the possible causes of changes that cause disabling, poisoning and sintering. Being impossible to test in real conditions is suggested here to test the catalyst in a process similar industrial conditions in a system “scale down”, using the same variables, forced or not. Here are some examples of typical catalysts and industrial processes.


Deactivation Hydrogenation Pyrolysis Regeneration 


  1. 1.
    Ali J. The hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline (PyGas) over nickel and palladium catalysts; 2012. PhD thesis. School of Chemistry University of Glasgow.
  2. 2.
    Derrien ML. Selective hydrogenation applied to the refinging of petrochemical raw materials produced by steam cracking. Stud Surf Sci Catal. 1986;27:613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schmal M. Chemical reaction engineering: essentials, exercises and examples. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Fracis; 2014. ISBN 978041569538.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee DC, Kim JH, Kim WJ, Kang JH, Moon SH. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on TiO2-modified Pd/SiO2 catalysts. Appl Catal A Gen. 2003;244:83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Furlong B, Hightower JW, Chan TY-L, Sarkany A, Guczi L. 1,3-Butadiene selective hydrogenation over Pd/alumina and CuPd/alumina catalysts. Appl Catal A Gen. 1994;117:41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borgna A, Moraweck B, Massadier J, Renouprez AJ. New supported palladium-chromium catalysts: characterization and catalytic properties. J Catal. 1991;128:99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pereira MM, Noronha FB, Schmal M. SMSI effect in the butadiene hydrogenation on Pd-Cu bimetallic catalysts. Catal Today. 1993;16:407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sarkany A, Zsoldos Z, Stefler G, Hightower JW, Guczi L. New supported palladium-chromium catalysts: characterization and catalytic properties. J Catal. 1995;157:179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schmal M, Aranda DAG, Soares RR, Noronha FB, Frydman A. SMSI effect in the butadiene hydrogenation on Pd-Cu bimetallic catalysts. Catal Today. 2000;57:169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krishma R, Sie ST. Chem Eng Sci. 1994;49:4029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alves JA, Bressa SP, Martínez OM, Barreto GF. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene: improvement of selectivity by using additives. Chem Eng J. 2004;99:45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ramos ALD, Silva Alves P, Aranda DAG, Schmal M. Characterization of carbon supported palladium catalysts: inference of electronic and particle size effects using reaction probes. Appl Catal A Gen. 2004;277:71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gallezot P, Cerino PJ, Blanc B, Fleche G, Fuertes P. Glucose hydrogenation on promoted Raney-nickel catalysts. J Catal. 1994;146:93.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adkins H, Billica HR. The preparation of Raney nickel catalysts and their use under conditions comparable with those for platinum and palladium catalysts. J Am Chem Soc. 1948;70:695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Final Report - Fundação COPPETEC - ET-110251, Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de um novo catalisador para a fabricação de Polialcoois por Hidrogenação sob pressão de Açucares ou Xarope de Amido Hidrolisado, 2000, PADCT/ FINEP no 65.95.0252.00 and GETEC - Guanabara Química Industrial S.A.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Carvalho M, Perez CA, Schmal M. Production of polyalcohol at high-pressure hydrogenation of cane sugar and hydrolyzed amides. Appl Catal A Gen. 2004;264:111–6.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klug HP, Alexander LE. X-ray diffraction procedures for polycrystalline and amorphous materials. New York: Wiley; 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Schmal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Chem.Eng. Dept.Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.University of São Paulo (USP)São PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations