Drought Stress Tolerant Horse Gram for Sustainable Agriculture

  • Jyoti Bhardwaj
  • Sudesh Kumar YadavEmail author
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 15)


Sustainable development is successful development that can be maintained. In agriculture sustainable development is seen as the new paradigm of economic development. Around three billion people living in rural areas are dependent on agriculture as their main source of income. It is not easy to sustain agricultural development given the various kinds of ever changing environmental challenges like metal toxicity, drought, cold, and salinity stresses that crops have to face. Drought stress is one of the most devastating environmental stress severely affecting crop growth, development and yield. To withstand drought stress and sustain the agricultural productivity we need to identify and maintain the natural crop resources.

Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is a highly drought tolerant yet underexploited tropical legume, commonly known as ‘kulthi’. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences in 1978 identified horse gram as potential food source for the future. Insurmountable drought tolerance and pest resistance together make it agriculturally an attractive crop. Besides normal cultivation in vitro regeneration of horse gram is an asset. Its high iron, low lipid, low sodium content and slow digestible starch make it a preferred choice for diabetic and obesity patients. Dark coloured seeds of horse gram in form of sprouts usually have higher antioxidant capacity as proven by various in vitro antioxidant assays. Seed extracts from horse gram contain isoflavones and glucopyranosides which show in vitro antilithic activity leading to reduced stone formation. When different processing techniques are used in combination they act synergistically reducing most of the antinutritional factors like polyphenols, lectins protease inhibitors in horse gram. However, some of the antinutrients have also been projected as health-promoting factors having anticancerous and antioxidant properties. Here we review the major points about horse gram: (1) morphology and physiology, (2) cultivation (3) composition, (4) medical implications, (5) antinutritional factors and their processing. To enhance horse gram’s utilization potential future research areas are highlighted. Also, an effort has been made to compile updated research activities conducted on horse gram from 1968 to 2013.


Horse gram Nutrition Drought tolerance Antinutritional factors Medicinal importance Poor man’s pulse 



United Nations World Water Development Report


Gross Domestic Production


Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development


National Academy of Sciences


Linoleate: Oxygen Oxidoreductase


TamilNadu Agricultural University


Protein Efficiency Ratio


Enzyme Commission


Kilo Calorie


Sodium Chloride


Sodium Carbonate


Half Maximal Effective Concentration


Insulin Dependent Diabetes Milletus


Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Milletus


Reactive Oxygen Species




2,2′-Azino-bis (3-Ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)


Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power




High Temperature Short Time


Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


Trypsin Inhibitor Activity



We are grateful to the Director, CSIR-IHBT, for his continuous encouragement and guidance. JB is full of gratitude towards Dr. R. K. Chahota and Ms. Monika Mahajan for their timely help and suggestions. JB would like to acknowledge Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Govt. of India for providing Diamond Jubilee Research Internship and Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India for providing research funds under WSS (WOS-A; GAP-0133) project.


  1. ADAM (2011) Medical encyclopedia, DiabetesGoogle Scholar
  2. Alles MS, Hartemink R, Meyboom S, Harryvan JL, VanLaere K, Nagengast FM (1999) Effect of transgalactooligosaccharides on the composition of the human intestinal microflora and on putative risk markers for colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 69:980–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anisha GS, Prema P (2008) Reduction of non-digestible oligosaccharides in horse gram and green gram flours using crude R-galactosidase from Streptomyces griseoloalbus. Food Chem 106:1175–1179. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.07.058 Google Scholar
  4. Asp NG, Van Amelsvoort JMM, Hautvast JGAJ (1996) Nutritional implications of resistant starch. Nutr Res Rev 9:1–31. doi: 10.1079/NRR19960004 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Aswathy Aromal S, Vidhu VK, Philip D (2012) Green synthesis of well dispersed gold nanoparticles using Macrotyloma uniflorm. Spectrochim Acta Part A 85:99–104Google Scholar
  6. Banerjee GC, Mandal L (1975) Metabolizable energy value of horse gram or Kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) and its usefulness as a dietary component in chick ration. Indian J Poult Sci 10:99–103Google Scholar
  7. Bazzano L, He J, Ogden LG, Loria C, Vuputuri S, Myers L, Whelton PK (2001) Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women. Arch Intern Med 161:2573–2578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhardwaj J, Mahajan M, Yadav SK (2013) Comparative analysis of DNA methylation polymorphism in drought sensitive (HPKC2) and tolerant (HPK4) genotypes of horsegram. Biochem Genet 51:493–502. doi: 10.1007/s10528-013-9580-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhardwaj J, Mohammad H, Yadav SK (2010) Computational identification of microRNAs and their targets from the expressed sequence tags of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). J Struct Funct Genomics 11:233–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhardwaj J, Yadav SK (2012a) Genetic mechanisms of drought stress tolerance, implications of transgenic crops for agriculture. Sustain Agric Rev 8:213–235. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-1905-7_9 Google Scholar
  11. Bhardwaj J, Yadav SK (2012b) Comparative study on biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymes in a drought tolerant and a sensitive variety of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) under drought stress. Am J Plant Physiol 7:17–29. doi: 10.3923/ajpp.2012.17.29 Google Scholar
  12. Bhatnagar D, Soran H, Durrington PN (2008) Hypercholesterolaemia and its management. BMJ 337:a993. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a993 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blanca HL, Hsieh CC, Lumen BOD (2009) Lunacin and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) in US commercial soy foods. Food Chem 115:574–580Google Scholar
  14. Bolbhat SN, Dhumal KN (2009) Induced macromutations in horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). Legum Res 32:278–281Google Scholar
  15. Bongirwar DW, Srinivasan A (1977) Development of quick cooking peas. J Food Sci Technol 4:17–23Google Scholar
  16. Borhade VP, Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1984a) Solubilization and functional properties of moth bean (Vigna aconitifilium (Jacq.) Marechal and horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) proteins. J Food Biochem 8:229–235Google Scholar
  17. Borhade VP, Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1984b) Changes in phytate phosphorus and minerals during germination and cooking of horse gram and moth bean. Qual Plant Plant Foods Hum Nutr 34:151–157. doi: 10.1007/BF01094843 Google Scholar
  18. Borrebaeck CAK, Etzler ME (1981) Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against the seed lectin of the Dolichos biflorus plant. J Biol Chem 256:4723–4725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulter D, Derbyshire E (1978) The general properties, classification and distribution of plant proteins. In: Norton G (ed) Plant proteins. Butterworths, London, pp 3–24Google Scholar
  20. Bravo L, Siddhuraju P, Saura-Calixto F (1998) Effect of various processing methods on the in vitro starch digestibility and resistant starch content of Indian pulses. J Agric Food Chem 46:4667–4674Google Scholar
  21. Bravo L, Siddhuraju P, Saura-Calixto F (1999) Composition of underexploited Indian pulses. Comparison with common legumes. Food Chem 64:185–192Google Scholar
  22. Brink M (2006) Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc. In: Brink M, Belay G (eds) PROTA 1: Cereals and pulses/Céréales et légumes secs. (CD-Rom). PROTA, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  23. Burr HK (1975) Pulse proteins. In: Friedman M (ed) Protein nutritional quality of foods and feeds, vol 1. Marcel Dekker, New York, p 119Google Scholar
  24. Butler LG, Hagerman AE, Price ML (1979) Biochemical effects of sorghum polyphenols. In: Hulse JH (eds) Proc Symp polyphenols in cereals and legume. IFT, St. Louis, p 36Google Scholar
  25. Carter WG, Etzler ME (1975a) Isolation and characterization of subunits from the predominant form of Dolichos biflorus lectin. Biochemistry 14:2685–2689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carter WG, Etzler ME (1975b) Isolation and characterization of cyanogen bromide fragments and a glycopeptide from the Dolichos biflorus lectin. Biochemistry 14:5118–5122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Carter WG, Etzler ME (1975c) Isolation, characterization and subunit structures of multiple forms of Dolichos biflorus lectin. J Biol Chem 250:2756–2762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chahota RK, Sharma TR, Dhiman KC, Kishore N (2005) Characterization and evaluation of horse gram germplasm from Himachal Pradesh. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 18:221–223Google Scholar
  29. Chand S (2009) Bioactive peptides isolated from alcalase hydrolysed horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) protein exhibiting antioxidant activity. New Biotechnol 25:S167–S168Google Scholar
  30. Chandrasekhar V, Chitra S (1978) Evaluation of the protein quality of sprouted horse gram and green gram on albino rat. Indian J Nutr Diet 15:223–227Google Scholar
  31. Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M (2002) Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet 359:2072–2077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Choudhary LS, Singh I (1994) Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and zinc on growth and yield attributes of rainfed horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) in Rajasthan. Indian J Agric Sci 64:257–258Google Scholar
  33. Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester E (2008) Kidney stone disease. In: Marks AR, Neill US (eds) Science in medicine: the JCI textbook of molecular medicine. Part II: Kidney and urinary tract. Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, pp 898–908Google Scholar
  34. Das I, Gupta SK, Ansari SA, Pandey VN, Rastogi RP (2005) In vitro inhibition and dissolution of calcium oxalate by edible plant Trianthema monogyna and pulse Macrotyloma uniflorum extracts. J Cryst Growth 273:546–554. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.09.038 Google Scholar
  35. Dhanunjayanath V, Karunagaran D, Rao RK (1993) Effect of fluoride on germination and starch mobilization of horse gram seeds. Indian J Plant Physiol 36:131–133Google Scholar
  36. Duke JA, Reed CF (1981) Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam). Verdc. In: Duke JA (ed) Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New York, p 146Google Scholar
  37. El-Ramady HR, El-Marsafawy SM, Lewis LN (2013) Sustainable agriculture and climate changes in Egypt. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Sustainable agriculture reviews, vol 12. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, pp 41–95. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-5961-9_2 Google Scholar
  38. Etzler ME (1972) Horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) lectin. Methods Enzymol 38:340–344Google Scholar
  39. Etzler ME, Kabat EA (1970) Purification and characterization of a lectin (plant hemagglutinin) with blood group A specificity from Dolichos biflorus. Biochemistry 9:869–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Etzler ME, Borrebaeck C (1980) Carbohydrate binding activity of a lectin like glycoprotein from stems and leaves of Dolichos biflorus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 96:92–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Etzler ME, Gupta S, Borrebaeck C (1981) Carbohydrate binding properties of the Dolichos biflorus lectin and its subunits. J Biol Chem 256:2367–2370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Etzler ME, Talbot CF, Ziaya PR (1977) NH2-terminal sequences of the subunits of Dolichos biflorus lectin. FEBS Lett 82:39–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Etzler ME, Macmillan S, Scates S, Gibson MD, James WD JR, Cole D, Thayer S (1984) Subcellular localizations of two Dolichos biflorus lectins. Plant Physiol 76:871–878PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Faki HAE, Desikachar HSR, Paramahans SV, Tharanathan RN (1983) Carbohydrate make-up of chickpea, cowpea and horse gram. Starch 35:163–166. doi: 10.1002/star.19830350505 Google Scholar
  45. Finkielstein VA, Goldfarb DS (2006) Strategies for preventing calcium oxalate stones. Can Med Assoc J 174:1407–1409. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.051517 Google Scholar
  46. Fourth Advanced Estimates (2011) Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Govt. of India databaseGoogle Scholar
  47. Gardner HW (1991) Recent investigations into the lipoxygenase pathway of plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1084:221–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Garimella TS, Jolly CI, Narayanan S (2001) In vitro studies on antilithiatic activity of seeds of Dolichos biflorus Linn. and rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata Wall. Phytother Res 15:351–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaur RD, Dangwal LR (1997) New species of Macrotyloma (Wight and Arn.) Verdc. (Fabaceae) from Garhwal Himalaya, UP, India. J Bombay Nat Hist Soc 94:381–383Google Scholar
  50. Gegg CV, Roberts DD, Segel IH, Etzler ME (1992) Characterization of the adenine binding sites of two Dolichos biflorus lectins. Biochemistry 31:6938–6942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ghani A (2003) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, pp 5–16Google Scholar
  52. Hamelryck TW, Loris R, Boukaert J, Dao-Thi MH, Strecker G, Imberty A, Fernandez E, Wyns L, Etzler ME (1999) Carbohydrate binding, quaternary structure and a novel hydrophobic binding site in two legume lectin oligomers from Dolichos biflorus. J Mol Biol 286:1161–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Handa G, Singh J, Nandi LN, Sharma ML, Kaul A (1990) Pyroglutaminylglutamine – a new diuretic principle from Dolichos biflorus seeds. Indian J Chem 29:1156–1158Google Scholar
  54. He Q, LV Y, Yao K (2006) Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of α-amylase, pepsin, trypsin and lipase. Food Chem 101:1178–1182Google Scholar
  55. Henry A, Daulay HS (1988) Genotype times environment interaction for seed yield in horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum). Indian J Agric Sci 58:684–686Google Scholar
  56. Ikenaka T, Norioka S (1986) Bowman-Birk family of serine proteinase inhibitors. In: Barrett AJ, Salvenson G (eds) Proteinase inhibitors. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 361–374Google Scholar
  57. Incham JL, Keen NT, Markham KK, Mulheirn LJ (1981) Dolichins A and B, two pterocarpans from bacteria-treated leaves of Dolichos biflorus. Phytochemistry 20:807–809Google Scholar
  58. Jayaraj AP, Tovey FI, Lewin MR, Clark CG (2000) Duodenal ulcer prevalence: experimental evidence for the possible role of dietary lipids. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:610–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Jinka R, Ramakrishna V, Rao SK, Rao RP (2009) Purification and characterization of cysteine protease from germinating cotyledons of horse gram. BMC Biochem 10:28PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. Jinka R, Rao PR (2002) Storage protein degradation in germinating horse gram seeds. Indian J Plant Physiol 7:314–320Google Scholar
  61. Johri N, Cooper B, Robertson W, Choong S, Rickards D, Unwin R (2010) An update and practical guide to renal stone management. Nephron Clin Pract 116:c159–c171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jyoti E, Reddy PR (1981) The effect of germination and cooking on in vitro digestibility of starch in some legumes. Nutr Rep Int 23:799–804Google Scholar
  63. Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1985) Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 22:1–26. doi: 10.1080/10408398509527407 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kadam SS, Subramanyam P, Jawale HK, Satwadhar PN, Jadhav SJ (1981) Improvement in cooking quality of horse gram (Dolichus biflorus) by pre-soaking treatment with salt solution. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 31:171–174Google Scholar
  65. Karunagaran D, Rao PR (1990) Axial control of protease development in cotyledons of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam.) seeds during germination. Indian J Plant Physiol 33:232–238Google Scholar
  66. Karunagaran D, Rao PR (1991) Mode and control of starch mobilization during germination of seeds of horse gram. Plant Sci 73:155–160Google Scholar
  67. Kawsar SMA, Rahman MR, Huq E, Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N, Mamun MR (2003) Studies of different extractives of Macrotyloma uniflorum. Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 2:81–84Google Scholar
  68. Kawsar SMA, Huq E, Nahar N (2008a) Cytotoxicity assessment of the aerial parts of Macrotyloma uniflorum Linn. Int J Pharmacol 4:297–300Google Scholar
  69. Kawsar SMA, Uddin MS, Huq E, Nahar N, Ozeki Y (2008b) Biological investigation of Macrotyloma uniflorum Linn. Extracts against some pathogens. J Biol Sci 8:1051–1056Google Scholar
  70. Kawsar SMA, Mostafa G, Huq E, Nahar N, Ozeki Y (2009) Chemical constituents and hemolytic activity of Macrotyloma uniflorum L. Int J Biol Chem 3:42–48Google Scholar
  71. Kennedy AR (1998) The Bowman-Birk inhibitor from soybean as an anticarcinogenic agent. Am J Clin Nutr 68:1406–1412Google Scholar
  72. Khader V, Rao SV (1981) Digestibility of carbohydrates of raw and cooked bengal gram (Cicer arietinum), green gram (Phaseolus aureus) and horse gram (Dolichos biflorus). Food Chem 7:267–271Google Scholar
  73. Khandpal RP, Vaidyanathan CS, Kumar MU, Sastry KSK, Rao NA (1981) Alterations in the activities of the enzymes of proline metabolism in Ragi (Eleusine coracana) leaves during water stress. J Biosci 3:361–370Google Scholar
  74. Kharkwal MC, Gupta VP (2003) Advances in arid legumes research. Published for Indian Arid Legumes Society, Jodhpur, p 523Google Scholar
  75. Kintzios SE (2006) Terrestrial plant-derived anticancer agents and plant species used in anticancer research. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:79–113Google Scholar
  76. Kishore N, Dogra RK, Thakur SR, Chahota RK (2007) Variability and correlation studies for some agro-morphological traits in horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). Himachal J Agric Res 33:117–118Google Scholar
  77. Kocourek J, Jamieson GA, Votruba T, Horejsi V (1977) Studies on phytohemagglutinins I. Some properties of the lectins of horse gram seeds (Dolichos biflorus L.). Biochim Biophys Acta 500:344–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kumar NS, Rao DR (1986) The nature of lectins from Dolichos lablab. J Biosci 10:95–109Google Scholar
  79. Kumar KG, Venkatraman LV, Jaya TV, Krishnamurthy KS (1978) Cooking characteristics of some germinated legumes: changes in phytins Ca++, Mg++ and pectins. J Food Sci 43:85Google Scholar
  80. Kurien D (1977) Grain legume milling technology. In: FAO expert consultation on grain legume processing. Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 14–18 NovGoogle Scholar
  81. Laskar S, Bhattacharyya UK, Sinhababu A, Basak BK (1998) Antihepatotoxic activity of kulthi (Dolichos biflorus) seed in rats. Fitoterapia 69:401–402Google Scholar
  82. Lee J, Koo N, Min DB (2004) Reactive oxygen species, aging, and antioxidative nutraceuticals. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 3:21–33Google Scholar
  83. Lele SM (1991) Sustainable development: a critical review. World Dev 19:607–621Google Scholar
  84. Lichtfouse E, Navarrete M, Debaeke P, Souchere V, Alberola C, Menassieu J (2009) Agronomy for sustainable agriculture. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 29:1–6. doi: 10.1051/agro:2008054 Google Scholar
  85. Liener IE (1976) Legume toxins in relation to protein digestibility. J Food Sci 41:1071–1081Google Scholar
  86. Lolas GM, Markakis P (1975) Phytic acid and other phosphorus compounds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 23:13Google Scholar
  87. Mahadevappa VG, Raina PL (1978) Nature of some Indian legume lipids. J Agric Food Chem 26:1241–1243Google Scholar
  88. Maheri-Sis N, Chamani M, Sadeghi AA, Mirza-Aghazadeh A, Safaei AR (2007) Nutritional evaluation of chickpea wastes for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. J Anim Vet Adv 6:1453–1457Google Scholar
  89. Manage L, Sohonie K (1972) Proximate composition, amino acid make up and in vitro proteolytic digestibility of horse gram (Dolichus biflorus). J Food Sci Technol 9:35–36Google Scholar
  90. Manage L, Joshi A, Sohonie K (1972) Toxicity to rats and mice of purified phytohemagglutinins from four Indian legumes. Toxicon 10:89–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Marathe SA, Rajalakshmi V, Jamdar SN, Sharma A (2011) Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India. Food Chem Toxicol 49:2005–2012. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.039 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mehta SL, Simlot MM (1982) An acid stable trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor from horse gram (Dolichos biflorus). J Biosci 4:295–306Google Scholar
  93. Messina MJ (1999) Legume and soybeans: overview of their nutritional profiles and health effects. Am J Clin Nutr 70:439S–449SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Millerd A (1975) Biochemistry of legume seed proteins. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 26:53–72Google Scholar
  95. Mitra J, Das A, Joshi T (1983) An isoflavone diglycoside from the seeds of Dolichos biflorus. Phytochemistry 22:1063–1064Google Scholar
  96. Mohamed VS, Wang CS, Thiruvengadam M, Jayabalan N (2004) In vitro plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis through cell suspension cultures of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 40:284–289Google Scholar
  97. Morris JB (2008) Macrotyloma axillare and M. uniflorum: Descriptor analysis, anthocyanin indexes and potential uses. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55:5–8Google Scholar
  98. Mushtari-Begum J, Srihara P, Hiremath SR (1977) Varietal difference in protein of horse gram Dolichus biflorus (Linn.). Mysore J Agric Sci 11:521–524Google Scholar
  99. Muthu AK, Sethupathy S, Manavalan R, Karar PK (2005) Hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus Linn. in high fat diet fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol 43:522–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Muthu AK, Sethupathy S, Manavalan R, Karar PK (2006) Antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus Linn. in high fat diet fed rabbits. Indian J Pharmacol 38:131–132Google Scholar
  101. Nagaraja N, Nehru SD, Manjunatha A (1999) Plant type for yield in horsegram as evidenced by path coefficient and selection indices. Karnataka J Agric Sci 12:33–37Google Scholar
  102. Nakakuki T (2003) Development of functional oligosaccharides in Japan. Trends Glycosci Glycotechnol 15:57–64Google Scholar
  103. Narayanan A, Anuradha M (1991) Water deficit as a factor limiting leaf area development in phosphorus deficient horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) plants. Indian J Plant Physiol 34:264–266Google Scholar
  104. NAS (1978) Tropical legumes: resources for the future. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  105. Nortron BW, Whitford C, Staples B (1989) Digestion of seed from hard-seeded selections of Macrotyloma uniflorum (Horse gram) by cattle. Trop Grassl 23:219–224Google Scholar
  106. OECD (2008) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. OECD Environment Outlook to 2030. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ParisGoogle Scholar
  107. Omokanye AT (1996) Performance of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) in the sub-humid zone of Nigeria. Legume Res 19:52–54Google Scholar
  108. Parameshwarappa SG, Lamani KD (2002) Performance of horsegram cultivars on medium black soils of Northern transitional zone of Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 15:627–629Google Scholar
  109. Patil BG, Moghe PG (1993) Reaction of mung, urid, rajama and kulthi varieties to powdery mildew. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 18:467–468Google Scholar
  110. Pere M, Bourrillon R, Jirgensons B (1975) Circular dichroism and conformational transition of Dolichos biflorus and Robinia pseudoacacia lectins. Biochim Biophys Acta 393:31–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Pittaway JK, Robertson IK, Ball MJ (2008) Chickpeas may influence fatty acid and fiber intake in an ad libitum diet, leading to small improvements in serum lipid profile and glycemic control. J Am Diet Assoc 108:1009–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Porta H, Rocha-Sosa M (2002) Plant lipoxygenases: physiological and molecular features. Plant Physiol 130:15–21PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. Prakash B, Selvaraj S, Murthy MRN, Sreerama YN, Rajagopal Rao D, Gowda LR (1996) Analysis of the plant Bowman-Birk inhibitors. J Mol Evol 42:560–569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Prakash BG, Khanure SK (2000) Genetic parameters, correlation and path coefficient analysis in horsegram. Karnataka J Agric Sci 13:312–314Google Scholar
  115. Prakash BG, Nayakar NY, Guled MB (2002) KBHG-1: a promising horsegram variety for Northern dry zone of Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 15:362–363Google Scholar
  116. Prakash BG, Guled MB, Bhosale AM (2008) Identification of suitable horsegram varieties for northern dry zone of Karnataka. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21:343–345Google Scholar
  117. Prema L, Kurup PA (1973) Effect of protein fractions from Cajanus cajan (red gram) and Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) on the serum, liver and aortic lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet. Atherosclerosis 18:369–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Pusztai A, Ewen SW, Grant G, Peumans WJ, Van Damme EJ, Coates ME, Bardocz S (1993) Kidney bean lectin-induced Escherichia coli overgrowth in the small intestine is blocked by GNA, a mannose specific lectin. J Appl Bacteriol 75:360–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Quinn JM, Etzler ME (1989) In vivo biosynthetic studies of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin. Plant Physiol 91:1382–1386PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Ramasarma PR, Rao AG, Rao DR (1995) Role of disulfide linkages in structure and activity of protinase inhibitor from horsegram (Dolichos biflorus). Biochim Biophys Acta 1248:35–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ramesh CK, Rehman A, Prabhakar BT, Vijay Avin BR, Aditya Rao SJ (2011) Antioxidant potentials in sprouts vs. seeds of Vigna radiata and Macrotyloma uniflorum. J Appl Pharm Sci 1:99–103Google Scholar
  122. Ranjekar PK, Patankar A, Gupta V, Bhatnagar R, Bentur J, Kumar PA (2003) Genetic engineering of crop plants for insect resistance. Curr Sci 84:321–329Google Scholar
  123. Rates SMK (2001) Plants as sources of drugs. Toxicon 39:603–613PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Ravindran R, Sundar STB (2009) Nutritive value of horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) for egg-type chicks and growers. Tamilnadu J Vet Anim Sci 5:125–131Google Scholar
  125. Ray PK (1969) Toxic factor(s) in raw horse gram (Dolichos biflorus). J Food Sci Technol 6:207–211Google Scholar
  126. Ray PK (1970) Nutritive value of horse gram Dolichus biflorus. III. Determination of biological value, digestibility and net protein utilization. Indian J Nutr Diet 7:71Google Scholar
  127. Reddy BN, Brijitha N, Raghavender CR (2005a) Aflatoxin contamination in insect damaged seeds of horsegram under storage. Mycotoxin Res 21:187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Reddy AM, Kumar SG, Jyothsnakumari G, Thimmanaik S, Sudhakar C (2005b) Lead induced changes in antioxidant metabolism of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) and bengalgram (Cicer arietinum L.). Chemosphere 60:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Reddy LVA, Reddy OVS (2005) Improvement of ethanol production in very high gravity fermentation by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) flour supplementation. Lett Appl Microbiol 41:440–444. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01767.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Reddy NR, Salunkhe DK (1980) Changes in oligosaccharides during germination and cooking of black gram and fermentation of black gram rice blend. Cereal Chem 57:353–358Google Scholar
  131. Reddy PS, Veeranjaneyulu K (1990) Effect of water stress on tissue ionic changes in horse gram, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.). Geobios 17:154–156Google Scholar
  132. Reddy PS, Veeranjaneyulu K (1991) Proline metabolism in senescing leaves of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Lam.). J Plant Physiol 137:381–383Google Scholar
  133. Roberts DM, Etzler ME (1984) Development and distribution of a lectin from the stems and leaves of Dolichos biflorus. Plant Physiol 76:879–884PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Roberts DM, Walker J, Etzler ME (1982) A structural comparison of the subunits of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin by peptide mapping and carboxyl terminal amino acid analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 218:213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rockland LB, Metzler EA (1967) Quick cooking lima and other dry beans. Food Technol 21:344–348Google Scholar
  136. Roopashree S, Rao AGA (2004) Thermostable iron containing low molecular weight lipoxygenase from Dolichos biflorus: purification and characterization. FASEB J 18:C13Google Scholar
  137. Roopashree S, Singh SA, Gowda LR, AppuRao AG (2006) Dual-function protein in plant defence: seed lectin from Dolichos biflorus (horse gram) exhibits lipoxygenase activity. Biochem J 395:629–639. doi: 10.1042/BJ20051889 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. Ryan CA, Green TR (1974) Proteinase inhibitors in natural plant protection. Recent Adv Phytochem 8:123–140Google Scholar
  139. Sahaul DV, Dhonukshe BT, Navale PA (1995) Leaf growth in relation to crop yield in horse gram. J Maharashtra Agric Univ 20:10–12Google Scholar
  140. Salunkhe DK (1982) Legumes in human nutrition: current status and future research needs. Curr Sci 51:387–398Google Scholar
  141. Samal KM, Senapati N (1997) Genetic variability performance, correlation and coheritability of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum Len. Verd) mutant lines. Legume Res 203:207–211Google Scholar
  142. Samuel G, Davis R, Hirji R (2006) Climate variability and water resources degradation in Kenya: improving water resources development and management, World bank working paper series 69. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  143. Sankar GRM, Das ND, Reddy PR (2002) Effect of yellow mosaic virus on seed yield of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) pedigrees under rainfed alfisols. Ann PIant Prot Sci 10:95–98Google Scholar
  144. Saraswathy KD, Kurup PA (1970) Effects of certain Indian pulses on the serum, liver and aortic lipid levels in rats fed a hypercholesterolaemic diet. Atherosclerosis 11:479–484Google Scholar
  145. Sathe SK, Deshpande SS, Salunkhe DK (1984) Dry beans of phaseolus: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 20:1PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Satwadhar PN, Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1981) Effects of germination and cooking on polyphenols and in vitro protein digestibility of horse gram and moth bean. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 31:171–176Google Scholar
  147. Schnell DJ, Etzler ME (1987) Primary structure of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin. J Biol Chem 262:7220–7225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schnell DJ, Alexander DC, Williams BG, Etzler ME (1987) cDNA cloning and in vitro synthesis of the Dolichos biflorus seed lectin. Eur J Biochem 167:227–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sessa DJ, Rackis JJ (1977) Lipid derived flavors of legume protein products. J Am Oil Chem Soc 54:468–473Google Scholar
  150. Shahidi F, Wanasundara PK (1992) Phenolic antioxidants. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 32:67–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Shahidi F, Chava UD, Naczk M, Amarowicz R (2001) Nutrient distribution and phenolic antioxidants in air-classified fractions of beach pea (Lathyrus maritimus L.). J Agric Food Chem 49:926–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Siddhuraju P, Manian S (2007) The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds. Food Chem 105:950–958. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.04.040 Google Scholar
  153. Singh U, Singh B (1992) Tropical grain legumes as important human foods. Econ Bot 46:310–321Google Scholar
  154. Singh S, Singh HD, Sikka KC (1968) Distribution of nutrients in the anatomical parts of common Indian pulses. Cereal Chem 45:13–18Google Scholar
  155. Singh U, Subrahmanyan N, Kumar J (1991) Cooking quality and nutritional attributes of some newly developed cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). J Sci Food Agric 55:37–46Google Scholar
  156. Sosulski F, Young CG (1979) Yield and functional properties of air classified protein and starch fraction from eight legume flours. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:292–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sreerama YN, Gowda LR (1997) Antigenic determinants and reactive sites of a trypsin/chymotrypsin double-headed inhibitor from horse gram (Dolichos biflorus). Biochim Biophys Acta 1343:235–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Sreerama YN, Gowda LR (1998) Bowman-birk type proteinase inhibitor profiles of horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) during germination and seed development. J Agric Food Chem 46:2596–2600Google Scholar
  159. Sreerama YN, Sasikala VB, Pratape VM (2008) Nutritional implications and flour functionality of popped/expanded horse gram. Food Chem 108:891–899Google Scholar
  160. Sreerama YN, Sasikala VB, Pratape VM (2009) Expansion properties and ultrastructure of legumes: effect of chemical and enzyme pre-treatments. Food Sci Technol 42:44–49Google Scholar
  161. Sreerama YN, Neelam DA, Sashikala VB, Pratape VM (2010) Distribution of nutrients and antinutrients in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: seed coat phenolics and their distinct modes of enzyme inhibition. J Agric Food Chem 58:4322–4330. doi: 10.1021/jf903101k PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sreerama YN, Sashikala VB, Pratape VM (2012) Phenolic compounds in cowpea and horse gram flours in comparison to chickpea flour: evaluation of their antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties associated with hyperglycemia and hypertension. Food Chem 133:156–162. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.011 Google Scholar
  163. Steppan CM, Bailey ST, Bhat S, Brown EJ, Banerjee RR, Wright CM, Patel HR, Ahima RS, Lazar MA (2001) The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes. Nature 409:307–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Subbulaksmi G, Ganeshkumar K, Venkatraman LV (1976) Effect of germination on carbohydrates, proteins, trypsin inhibitor, amylase inhibitor, and hemagglutinin in horse gram and moth bean. Nutr Rep Int 13:19–31Google Scholar
  165. Sudha N, Mushtari-Begum J, Shambulingappa KG, Babu CK (1995) Nutrients and some anti-nutrients in horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.). Food Nutr Bull 16:81–83Google Scholar
  166. Talbot CF, Etzler ME (1978a) Development and distribution of Dolichos biflorus lectin as measured by radioimmuno assay. Plant Physiol 61:847–850PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. Talbot CF, Etzler ME (1978b) Isolation and characterization of a protein from leaves and stems of Dolichos biflorus that cross reacts with antibodies to the seed lectin. Biochemistry 17:1474–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Tapiero H, Tew KD, Nguyen BG, Mathe G (2002) Polyphenols: do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies? Biomed Pharmacother 56:200–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Ti L-H (2007) Chief, water security section, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, based on information from the Asian River Restoration Network and the fresh and coastal waters session at the 3rd Southeast Asia Water Forum Regional Workshop, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  170. TNAU agritech portal (2008) Agriculture pulsesGoogle Scholar
  171. Tomomatsu H (1994) Health effects of oligosaccharides. Food Technol 48:61–66Google Scholar
  172. Toress-Pinedo R (1983) Lectins and the intestine. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2:588–594Google Scholar
  173. Turner BL, Paphazy JM, Haygarth MP, Mckelvie DI (2002) Inositol phosphate in the environment. Online J R Soc 357:449–469Google Scholar
  174. UNWWDR (2008) United Nations World water development report 3: water in a changing world. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken. Accessed 5 Aug 2013Google Scholar
  175. USDA (2011) National nutrient database for standard reference, Release 25Google Scholar
  176. Venkataraman LV, Jaya TV (1975) Gastro-intestinal gas production in rats fed on diets containing germinated legumes. Nutr Rep Int 12:387–398Google Scholar
  177. Venugopal K, Rao GR (1978) Studies on black gram proteins. Indian Food Pack 32:44Google Scholar
  178. Verdcourt B (1982) A revision of Macrotyloma (Leguminosae). Hooker’s Icones Plantarum 38:1–138.Google Scholar
  179. Vidhu VK, Aswathy Aromal S, Philip D (2011) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Macrotyloma uniflorum. Spectrochim Acta Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 83:392–397Google Scholar
  180. Vijaylaksmi D, Venkatrao S (1977) Effect of processing and supplementation with sesame on the quality of the proteins of Bengal gram, green gram and horse gram. In: FAO expert consultation on grain legume processing, held at Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 14–18 NovGoogle Scholar
  181. WHO (2008) World Health Organization and UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund) Joint monitoring programme. A snapshot of sanitation in Africa. United Nations Children’s Fund/World Health Organization, New York/GenevaGoogle Scholar
  182. World Bank (2008) World development report. Agriculture for development. World Bank, Washington, DC.
  183. Yadav S, Negi KS, Mandal S (2004) Protein and oil rich wild horsegram. Genet Res Crop Evol 51:629–633Google Scholar
  184. Zech LA Jr, Hoeg JM (2004) Correlating corneal arcus with atherosclerosis in familial hypercholesterolemia. Lipids Health Dis 7:7. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-7-7 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Metabolic Engineering Laboratory, Biotechnology DivisionCSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Council of Scientific and Industrial ResearchPalampurIndia

Personalised recommendations