Advertisement

Crop Plant Hormones and Environmental Stress

  • Shah Fahad
  • Lixiao Nie
  • Yutiao Chen
  • Chao Wu
  • Dongliang Xiong
  • Shah Saud
  • Liu Hongyan
  • Kehui Cui
  • Jianliang HuangEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Agriculture Reviews book series (SARV, volume 15)

Abstract

Plant hormones play vital roles in the ability of plants to acclimatize to varying environments by mediating growth, development and nutrient allocation. Hormones move through specific pathways to regulatory sites where they respond to stress at awfully low concentration. All biological activities are directly or indirectly affected by both phytohormones. Here we review the role of hormones against abiotic tolerance in crop plants. The main findings are: (1) abscisic acid act as a mediator in plant responses to many stresses, including salt stress. (2) Stress modifies the level of indole acetic acid (IAA) thus reducing growth. (3) Functional analysis of cytokinin receptor mutants show that cytokinin receptors of Arabidopsis act as negative regulators in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and in osmotic stress response. (4) The mechanisms by which gibberellic acid (GA) priming could induce salt tolerance in plants are not yet clear. Salinity perturbs the hormonal balance in plants. Under salt stress hormonal homeostasis might be the possible mechanism of GA3-induced plant salt tolerance. (5) A low level of salicylic acid and jasmonate is effective against abiotic stress by enhancing physiological processes and improving tolerance. (6) Role of brassinosteroids and triazole during environmental stress is emerging. (7) Ethylene is considered as a stress hormone; however, the role of ethylene in salt stress is equivocal. The present review focus on abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene and triazole.

Keywords

Abiotic stress Plant growth regulators Phytohormones 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We thank the funding provided by the Key Technology Program R&D of China (Project No. 2012BAD04B12) and MOA Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China (No. 201103003).

References

  1. Abel S, Nguyen MD, Theologis A (1995) The PS-IAA4/5-like family of early auxin-inducible mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Mol Biol 251:533–549PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abeles FB, Morgan PW, Saltveit ME Jr (1992) Ethylene in plant biology, 2nd edn. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  3. Aberg B (1981) Plant growth regulators XLI. Mono substituted benzoic acid. Swed J Agric Res 11:93–105Google Scholar
  4. Achard P, Cheng H, Grauwe LD et al (2006) Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science 311:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams DO, Yang SF (1979) Ethylene biosynthesis: identification of 1-aminocyclopropane- 1-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76:170–174PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Albrechtová JPT, Ullmann J (1994) Methyl jasmonate inhibits growth and flowering in Chenopodium rubrum. Biol Plant 36:317–319Google Scholar
  7. Aldesuquy HS, Ibrahim AH (2001) Interactive effect of seawater and growth bio-regulators on water relations, absicisic acid concentration and yield of wheat plants. J Agron Crop Sci 187:185–193Google Scholar
  8. Ali B, Hayat S, Ahmad A (2007) 28-Homobrassinolide ameliorates the saline stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Environ Exp Bot 59:217–223Google Scholar
  9. Aloni R (1987) Differentiation of vascular tissues. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 38:179–204Google Scholar
  10. Aloni R (2001) Foliar and axial aspects of vascular differentiation – hypotheses and evidence. J Plant Growth Regul 20:22–34Google Scholar
  11. Aloni R (2004) The induction of vascular tissue by auxin. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant hormones: biosynthesis, signal transduction, action. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 471–492Google Scholar
  12. Aloni R, Aloni E, Langhans M, Ullrich CI (2006) Role of cytokinin and auxin in shaping root architecture: regulating vascular differentiation, lateral root initiation, root apical dominance and root gravitropism. Ann Bot 97:883–893PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Amzallag GN, Goloubinoff P (2003) An Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin, as a brassinosteroid antagonist: evidence from salt-exposed roots of Vigna radiata. Plant Biol 5:143–150Google Scholar
  14. Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2001) Effect of brassinosteroids on salinity stress induced inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 33:151–153Google Scholar
  15. Archbold HK (1940) Fructosans in the monocotyledons. Rev New Phytol 39:185–219Google Scholar
  16. Asada K (1992) Ascorbate peroxidase-a hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzyme in plants. Physiol Plant 85:235–241Google Scholar
  17. Asare-Boamah NK, Fletcher RA (1986) Protection of bean seedlings against heat and chilling injury by triadimefon. Physiol Plant 67(3):353–358Google Scholar
  18. Asim M, Day S, Rezaei F, Hajyzadeh M, Mahmud TS, Ozcan S (2011) In vitro shoot regeneration from preconditioned explants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cv. Gokce. Afr J Biotechnol 10(11):2020–2023Google Scholar
  19. Bacon MA, Wilkinson S, Davies WJ (1998) pH-regulated leaf cell expansion in droughted plants is abscisic acid dependent. Plant Physiol 118:1507–1515PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Barciszewski J, Siboska G, Rattan SIS, Clark BFC (2000) Occurrence, biosynthesis and properties of kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine). Plant Growth Regul 32:257–265Google Scholar
  21. Barkosky RR, Einhelling FA (1993) Effect of salicylic acid on plant water relationship. J Chem Ecol 19:237–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bartels D, Sunkar R (2005) Drought and salt tolerance in plants. Crit Rev Plant Sci 24:23–58Google Scholar
  23. Basalah MO, Mohammad S (1999) Effect of salinity and plant growth regulators on seed germination of Medicago sativa L. Pak J Biol Sci 2:651–653Google Scholar
  24. Bewlay JD, Black M (1994) Seeds: physiology of developmental and germination, 2nd edn. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Bleecker AB, Kende H (2000) Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 16:1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Blum A (1988) Plant breeding for stress environments. CRC Press, Florida, p 223Google Scholar
  27. Bohnert HJ, Nelson DE, Jonsen RG (1995) Adaptations to environmental stresses. Plant Cell 7:1099–1111PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Boucaud J, Ungar IA (1976) Hormonal control of germination under saline conditions of three halophyte taxa in genus Suaeda. Physiol Plant 36:197–200Google Scholar
  29. Boyer JS (1982) Plant productivity and environment. Science 218:443–448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Bray EA (2002) Abscisic acid regulation of gene expression during water-deficient stress in the era of Arabidopsis genome. Plant Cell Environ 25:153–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ceccarelli S, Grando S, Maatougui M, Michael M, Slash M, Haghparast R, Rahmanian M, TaherI A, AL-Yassin A, Benbelkacem A, Labdi M, Mimoun H, Nachit M (2010) Plant breeding and climate changes. J Agric Sci Camb 148:627–637Google Scholar
  32. Chakrabarti N, Mukherji S (2003a) Alleviation of NaCl stress by pretreatment with phytohormones in Vigna radiata. Biol Plant 46:589–594Google Scholar
  33. Chakrabarti N, Mukherji S (2003b) Effect of phytohormone pretreatment on nitrogen metabolism in Vigna radiata under salt stress. Biol Plant 46:63–66Google Scholar
  34. Chang C, Bleecker AB (2004) Ethylene biology. More than a gas. Plant Physiol 136:2895–2899PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Chang C, Kwok SF, Bleecker AB, Meyerowitz EM (1993) Arabidopsis ethylene response gene ETR1: similarity of product to two-component regulators. Science 262:539–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Chen YF, Etheridge N, Schaller E (2005) Ethylene signal transduction. Ann Bot (Lond) 95:901–915Google Scholar
  37. Cheong JJ, Choi YD (2003) Methyl jasmonate as a vital substance in plants. Trends Genet 19:409–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chinnusamy V, Schumaker K, Zhu JK (2004) Molecular genetics perspectives on cross-talk and specificity in abiotic stress signaling in plants. J Exp Bot 55:225–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Clouse SD, Sasse JM (1998) Brassinosteroids: essential regulators of plant growth and development. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:427–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cost P, Neto A, Bezerra M, Prisco T, Filho E (2005) Antioxidant- enzymatic system of two Sorghum genotypes differing in salt tolerance. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:139–147Google Scholar
  41. Cowan AK, Cairns ALP, Bartels-Rahm B (1999) Regulation of abscisic acid metabolism: towards a metabolic basis for abscisic acid-cytokinin antagonism. J Exp Bot 50:595–603Google Scholar
  42. Creelman RA, Mullet JE (1995) Jasmonic acid distribution and action in plants: regulation during development and response to biotic and abiotic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:4114–4119PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Creelman RA, Mason HS, Bensen RJ, Boyer JS, Mullet JE (1990) Water deficit and abscisic acid cause differential inhibition of shoot versus root growth in soybean seedlings. Plant Physiol 92:205–214PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Creelman RA, Tierney ML, Mullet JE (1992) Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(11):4938–4941PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Cutt JR, Klessing DF (1992) Salicylic acid in plants: a changing perspective. Pharm Technol 16:25–34Google Scholar
  46. Dajic Z (2006) Salt stress. In: Madhava Rao KV, Raghavendra AS, Janardhan Reddy K (eds) Physiology and molecular biology of salt tolerance in plant. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 41–99Google Scholar
  47. Dat JF, Foyer CH, Scott IM (1998) Changes in salicylic acid and antioxidants during induced thermotolerance in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiol 118:1455–1461PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Davies PJ (2004) Plant hormones: biosynthesis, signal transduction, action. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  49. Davies WJ, Zhang J (1991) Root signals and the regulation of growth and development of plants in drying soil. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:55–76Google Scholar
  50. Davies WJ, Tardieu F, Trejo CL (1994) How do chemical signals work in plants that grow in drying soil? Plant Physiol 104:309–314PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Davis T, Steffens G, Sankhla N (1988) Triazole plant growth regulators. Hortic Rev 10:63–105Google Scholar
  52. Debez A, Chaibi W, Bouzid S (2001) Effect du NaCl et de regulatoeurs de croissance sur la germination d’ Atriplex halimus L. Cah Agric 10:135–138Google Scholar
  53. Dela-Rosa IM, Maiti RK (1995) Biochemical mechanism in glossy sorghum lines for resistance to salinity stress. J Plant Physiol 146:515–519Google Scholar
  54. DeWald DB, Sadka A, Mullet JE (1994) Sucrose modulation of soybean Vsp gene expression is inhibited by auxin. Plant Physiol 104(2):439–444PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Duan J, Li J, Guo S, Kang Y (2008) Exogenous spermidine affects polyamine metabolism in salinity-stressed Cucumis sativus roots and enhances short-term salinity tolerance. J Plant Physiol 165:1620–1635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Dunlap JR, Binzel ML (1996) NaCl reduces indole-3-acetic acid levels in the roots of tomato plants independent of stress-induced abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 112:379–384PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. EI-Tayeb MA (2005) Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regul 45:215–224Google Scholar
  58. El-Iklil Y, Karrou M, Benichou M (2000) Salt stress effect on epinasty in relation to ethylene production and water relations in tomato. Agronomie 20:399–406Google Scholar
  59. Epstein E, Rush JD, Kingsbury RW, Kelley DB, Cinnigham GA, Wrono AF (1980) Saline culture of crops: a genetic approach. Science 210:399–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Escalada JA, Moss DN (1976) Changes in non-structural carbohydrate fractions of developing spring wheat kernels. Crop Sci 16:627–631Google Scholar
  61. Etehadnia M, Waterer DR, Tanino KK (2008) The method of ABA application affects salt stress responses in resistant and sensitive potato lines. J Plant Growth Regul 27:331–341Google Scholar
  62. Fahad S, Bano A (2012) Effect of salicylic acid on physiological and biochemical characterization of maize grown in saline area. Pak J Bot 44(4):1433–1438Google Scholar
  63. Fletcher RA, Hofstra G (1985) Triadimefon a plant multi-protectant. Plant Cell Physiol 26(4):775–780Google Scholar
  64. Fletcher RA, Gill A, Davis TD, Sankhla N (2000) Triazoles as plant growth regulators and stress protectants. Hortic Rev 24:55–138Google Scholar
  65. Flowers JP, Trake F, Yeo AR (1977) The mechanisms of salt tolerance in halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 28:89–121Google Scholar
  66. Frommer WB, Ludewig U, Rentsch D (1999) Taking transgenic plants with a pinch of salt. Science 285:1222–1223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Fukuda A, Tanaka Y (2006) Effects of ABA, auxin and gibberellin on the expression of genes for vacuolar H+-inorganic pyrophosphatase, H+-ATPase subunit A, and Na+/H+ antiporter in barley. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:351–358PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gamble RL, Coonfield ML, Schaller GE (1998) Histidine kinase activity of the ETR1 ethylene receptor from Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:7825–7829PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Garham J, Hughes LY, Wynjanes RG (1981) Low molecular weight carbohydrates in some salt stressed plants. Physiol Plant 53:27–33Google Scholar
  70. Gilley A, Flecher RA (2007) Gibberellin antagonizes paclobutrazole induced stress protection in wheat seedlings. J Plant Physiol 103(1–2):200–207Google Scholar
  71. GomezCadenas A, Tadeo FR, PrimoMillo E, Talon M (1998) Involvement of abscisic acid and ethylene in the responses of citrus seedlings to salt shock. Plant Physiol 103:475–484Google Scholar
  72. GomezCadenas A, Arbona V, Jacas J, PrimoMillo E, Talon M (2002) Abscisic acid reduces leaf abscission and increases salt tolerance in citrus plants. J Plant Growth Regul 21:234–240Google Scholar
  73. Gonai T, Kawahara S, Tougou M, Satoh S, Hashiba T, Hirai N, Kawaide H, Kamiya Y, Yoshioka T (2004) Abscisic acid in the thermoinhibition of lettuce seed germination and enhancement of its catabolism by gibberellin. J Exp Bot 55:111–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Gopi R, Sujatha BM, Rajan SN, Karkalan L, Pannerselvam R (1999) Effect of triadimefon in the sodium chloride stressed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) seedlings. Indian J Agric Sci 69:743–745Google Scholar
  75. Greenway H, Munns R (1980) Mechanism of salt tolerance in nonhalophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190Google Scholar
  76. Guilfoyle TJ, Hagen G, Li Y, Ulmasov T, Liu Z, Strabala T, Gee MA (1993) Auxin-regulated transcription. Aust J Plant Physiol 20:489–502Google Scholar
  77. Guo H, Ecker JR (2004) The ethylene signaling pathway: new insights. Curr Opin Plant Biol 7:40–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Hadiarto T, Tran LS (2011) Progress studies of drought-responsive genes in rice. Plant Cell Rep 30:297–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hagen G, Guilfoyle T (2002) Auxin-responsive gene expression: genes, promoters and regulatory factors. Plant Mol Biol 49:373–385PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hall AE, Findell JL, Schaller GE, Sisler EC, Bleecker AB (2000) Ethylene perception by the ERS1 protein in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 123:1449–1457PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Hare PD, Cress WA, van Staden J (1997) The involvement of cytokinins in plant responses to environmental stress. Plant Growth Regul 23:79–103Google Scholar
  82. Haroun SA, Badawy AH, Shukry WM (1991) Auxin induced modification of Zea mays and Lupinus termis seedlings exposed to water stress imposed by polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000). Sci J 18:335Google Scholar
  83. Harper JP, Balke NE (1981) Characterization of the inhibition of K+ absorption in oat roots by salicylic acid. Plant Physiol 68:1349–1353PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Hartung W, Weiler EW, Radin JW (1992) Auxin and cytokinins in the apoplastic solution of dehydrated cotton leaves. J Plant Physiol 140:324–332Google Scholar
  85. Hartung W, Sauter A, Hose E (2002) Abscisic acid in the xylem: where does it come from, where does it go to? J Exp Bot 53:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Hasegawa PM, Bressan RA, Zhu JK, Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 51:463–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Hathout TA (1996) Salinity stress and its counteraction by the growth regulator (Brassinolide) in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Giza 157). Egypt J Physiol Sci 20:127–152Google Scholar
  88. Hisamatsu T, Koshioka M, Kubota S, Fujime Y, King RW, Mander LN (2000) The role of gibberellin in the control of growth and flowering in Matthiola incana. Physiol Plant 109:97–105Google Scholar
  89. Hoque M, Haque S (2002) Effects of GA3 and its mode of application on morphology and yield parameters of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.). Pak J Biol Sci 5:281–283Google Scholar
  90. Hua J, Meyerowitz EM (1998) Ethylene responses are negatively regulated by a receptor gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell 94:261–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Hua J, Chang C, Sun Q, Meyerowitz EM (1995) Ethylene insensitivity conferred by Arabidopsis ERS gene. Science 269:1712–1714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Ilan I (1971) Evidence for hormonal regulation of the selectivity of ion uptake by plant cells. Physiol Plant 25:230–233Google Scholar
  93. Iqbal M, Ashraf M (2010) Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis. Environ Exp Bot 86:76–85. doi: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2010.06.002 Google Scholar
  94. Iqbal M, Ashraf M, Jamil A (2006) Seed enhancement with cytokinins: changes in growth and grain yield in salt stressed wheat plants. Plant Growth Regul 50:29–39Google Scholar
  95. Iqbal N, Nazar R, Iqbal MRK, Masood A, Nafees AK (2011) Role of gibberellins in regulation of source sink relations under optimal and limiting environmental conditions. Curr Sci 100(7):998–1007Google Scholar
  96. Itai C (1999) Role of phytohormones in plant responses to stresses. In: Lerner HR (ed) Plant responses to environmental stress. From phytohormones to genome reorganization. Marcel Dekker, New York/Basel, pp 287–301Google Scholar
  97. Jackson M (1997) Hormones from roots as signals for the shoots of stressed plants. Elsevier Trends J 2:22–28Google Scholar
  98. Javid MG, Sorooshzadeh A, Moradi F, Sanavy SAMM, Allahdadi I (2011) The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants. Aust J Crop Sci 5:726–734Google Scholar
  99. Jensen AB, Bush PB, Figueras M, Alba MM, Peracchia G, Messeguer R, Goday A, Pages M (1996) Drought signal transduction in plants. Plant Growth Regul 20:105–110Google Scholar
  100. Jia W, Wang Y, Zhang S, Zhang J (2002) Salt stress-induced ABA accumulation is more sensitively triggered in roots than in shoots. J Exp Bot 53:2201–2206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Jumali SS, Said IM, Ismail I, Zainal Z (2011) Genes induced by high concentration of salicylic acid in Mitragyna speciosa. Aust J Crop Sci 5:296–303Google Scholar
  102. Kaminek M, Motyka V, Vankova R (1997) Regulation of cytokinin content in plant cells. Physiol Plant 101:689–700Google Scholar
  103. Kang HM, Saltveit ME (2002) Chilling tolerance of maize, cucumber and rice seedlings leaves and roots are differentially affected by salicylic acid. Physiol Plant 115:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Kang DJ, Seo YJ, Lee JD, Ishii R, Kim KU, Shin DH, Park SK, Jang SW, Lee IJ (2005) Jasmonic acid differentially affects growth, ion uptake and abscisic acid concentration in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 191:273–282Google Scholar
  105. Karen R (2000) Salinity. In: Sumner ME (ed) Handbook of soil science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp G3–G25Google Scholar
  106. Karikalan L, Rajan SN, Gopi R, Sujatha BM, Pannersevalam R (1999) Induction of salt tolerance by triadimefon in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) Mill sp. Indian J Exp Biol 37:825–829Google Scholar
  107. Karmoker JL, Van Steveninck FM (1979) The effect of abscisic acid on the uptake and distribution of ions in intact seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Redland Pioneer. Physiol Plant 45:453–459Google Scholar
  108. Katsumi M (1991) Chapter 21: physiological modes of brassinolide action in cucumber hypocotyls growth. In: Cutler HG, Yokota T, Adam G (eds) Brassinosteroids chemistry, bioactivity and applications, ACS symposium series, 474. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  109. Kavi Kishore PB, Sangam S, Amrutha RN, Laxmi PS, Naidu KR, Rao KRSS, Rao S, Reddy KJ, Theriappan P, Sreenivasulu N (2005) Regulation of proline biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and transport in higher plants: its implications in plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. Curr Sci 88:424–438Google Scholar
  110. Kaya C, Tuna AL, Yoka I (2009) The role of plant hormones in plants under salinity stress. In: Ashraf M, Ozturk M, Arthur HR (eds) Salinity and water stress: improving crop efficiency. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  111. Kende H (1993) Ethylene biosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 44:283–307Google Scholar
  112. Keskin BC, Sarikaya AT, Yuksel B, Memon AR (2010) Abscisic acid regulated gene expression in bread wheat. Aust J Crop Sci 4:617–625Google Scholar
  113. Khalil IA (1995) Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in cereals as affected by growth retardants of triazole series. Cereal Res Commun 23:183–189Google Scholar
  114. Khan MA, Gul B (2006) Halophyte seed germination. In: Eco-physiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 11–30Google Scholar
  115. Khan AA, Akbar M, Seshu DV (1987) Ethylene as an indicator of salt tolerance in rice. Crop Sci 27:1242–1248Google Scholar
  116. Khan W, Prithiviraj B, Smith D (2003) Photosynthetic response of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. J Plant Physiol 160:485–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Khan NA, Singh S, Nazar R, Lone PM (2007) The source–sink relationship in mustard. Asian Aust J Plant Sci Biotechnol 1:10–18Google Scholar
  118. Khodary SEA (2004) Effect of salicylic acid on growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants. Int J Agric Biol 6:5–8Google Scholar
  119. Khripach V, Zhabinskii VN, Lakhvich FA (1996) Prospects for practical use of brassinosteroids a new class of phytohormones. Seliskokhozyaistvennaya Biologia 1:3–11Google Scholar
  120. Khripach V, Zhabinskii VN, deGroot AE (2000) Twenty years of brassinosteroids: steroidal plant hormones warrant better crops for the XXI century. Ann Bot 86:441–447Google Scholar
  121. Kiribuchi K, Jikumaru Y, Kaku H, Minami E, Hasegawa M, Kodama O, Seto H, Okada K, Nojiri H, Yamane H (2005) Involvement of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor RERJ1 in wounding and drought stress responses in rice plants. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 69:1042–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Kirkham MB, Gardner WR, Gerloff GC (1974) Internal water status of kinetin-treated, salt-stressed plants. Plant Physiol 53:241–243PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. Krishna P (2003) Brassinosteroid-mediated stress responses. J Plant Growth Regul 22:289–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Kuiper D, Schuit J, Kuiper PJC (1990) Actual cytokinin concentrations in plant tissue as an indicator for salt resistance in cereals. Plant Soil 123:243–250Google Scholar
  125. Kumar B, Singh B (1996) Effect of plant hormones on growth and yield of wheat irrigated with saline water. Ann Agric Res 17:209–212Google Scholar
  126. Lamb C, Dixon RA (1997) The oxidative burst in plant disease resistance. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 48:251–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Larque-Saavedra A (1979) Stomatal closure in response to acetylsalicylic acid treatment. Z Pflannzen Physiol 93:371–375Google Scholar
  128. Lehmann J, Atzorn R, Bruckner C, Reinbothe S, Leopold J, Wasternack C, Parthier B (1995) Accumulation of jasmonate, abscisic acid, specific transcripts and proteins in osmotically stressed barley leaf segments. Planta 197:156–162Google Scholar
  129. Li L, Van Staden J (1998) Effects of plant growth regulators on the antioxidant system in seedlings of two maize cultivars subjected to water stress. Plant Growth Regul 25:81–87Google Scholar
  130. Li W, Liu X, Khan MA, Yamaguchi S (2005) The effect of plant growth regulators, nitric oxide, nitrate, nitrite and light on the germination of dimorphic seed of Suaeda sala under saline conditions. J Plant Res 118:207–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Liang YC, Zhang WQ, Chen J, Ding R (2005) Effect of silicon on H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activity, fatty acid composition and fluidity of tonoplast vesicles from roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). J Environ Exp Bot 53:29–37Google Scholar
  132. Liscum E, Reed J (2002) Genetics of Aux/IAA and ARF action in plant growth and development. Plant Mol Biol 49:387–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Liu Y, Xu J, Ding Y, Wang Q, Li G, Wang S (2011) Auxin inhibits the outgrowth of tiller buds in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by downregulating OsIPT expression and cytokinin biosynthesis in nodes. Aust J Crop Sci 5:169–174Google Scholar
  134. Luan S (2002) Signalling drought in guard cells. Plant Cell Environ 25:229–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Macleod AM, Orquodale MC (1958) Water soluble carbohydrates of seeds of the gramineae. New Phytol 57:168–182Google Scholar
  136. Maggio A, Barbieri G, Raimondi G, De Pascale S (2010) Contrasting effects of GA3 treatments on tomato plants exposed to increasing salinity. J Plant Growth Regul 29:63–72Google Scholar
  137. Magome H, Yamaguchi S, Hanada A, Kamiya Y, Odadoi K (2004) Dwarf and delayed-flowering 1, a novel Arabidopsis mutant deficient in gibberellins biosynthesis because of over expression of a putative AP2 transcription factor. Plant J 37:720–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Mahajan S, Tuteja N (2005) Cold, salinity and drought stresses: an overview. Arch Biochem Biophys 444:139–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Majid GJ, Ali S, Foad M, Seyed AMMS, Iraj A (2011) The role of phytohormones in alleviating salt stress in crop plants: a review. Aust J Crop Sci 5(6):726–734Google Scholar
  140. Masia A, Pitacco A, Braggio L, Giulivo C (1994) Hormonal responses to partial drying of the root system of Helianthus annuus. J Exp Bot 45:69–76Google Scholar
  141. Mason HS, Mullet JE (1990) Expression of two soybean vegetative storage protein genes during development and in response to water deficit, wounding, and jasmonic acid. Plant Cell 2:569–579PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Mason HS, DeWald DB, Mullet JE (1993) Identification of a methyl jasmonate-responsive domain in the soybean vspB promoter. Plant Cell 5:241–251PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  143. Masood A, Shah NA, Zeeshan M, Abraham G (2006) Differential response of antioxidant enzymes to salinity stress in two varieties of Azolla (Azolla pinnata and Azolla filiculoides). Environ Exp Bot 58:216–222Google Scholar
  144. Mayer AM, Poljkoff-Mayber A (1975) The germination of seeds, 2nd edn. Pergamon Press, New York, pp 167–193Google Scholar
  145. McConn M, Creelman RA, Bell F, Mullet JE, Browse J (1997) Jasmonate is essential for insect defense in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:5473–5477PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Meeir H, Reid JSG (1982) Reserve polysaccharides other than starch in higher plants. In: Loewus FA, Tanner W (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiol, vol 13a, New series. Springer, Berlin, pp 418–471Google Scholar
  147. Mei C, Qi M, Sheng G, Yang Y (2006) Inducible overexpression of a rice allene oxide synthase gene increases the endogenous jasmonic acid level, PR gene expression, and host resistance to fungal infection. Mol Plant Microbe Interact 19:1127–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Martinez CA, Cambraia J (2003) Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. Environ Exp Bot 49:69–76Google Scholar
  149. Merchan F, de Lorenzo L, González-Rizzo S, Niebel A, Megías M, Frugier F, Sousa C, Crespi M (2007) Analysis of regulatory pathways involved in the reacquisition of root growth after salt stress in Medicago truncatula. Plant J 51:1–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Metwally A, Finkmemeier I, Georgi M, Dietz KJ (2003) Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings. Plant Physiol 132:272–281PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  151. Mitchell JW, Mandava NB, Worley JF, Plimmer JR, Smith MV (1970) Brassins: a new family of plant hormones from rape pollen. Nature 225:1065–1066PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Mittler R (2002) Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 7:405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Miyazaki JH, Yang SF (1987) The methionine salvage pathway in relation to ethylene and polyamine biosynthesis. Physiol Plant 69:366–370Google Scholar
  154. Mizrahi Y, Blumonfeld A, Bittner S, Richmond AE (1971) Abscisic acid and cytokinin content of leaves in relation to salinity and relative humidity. Plant Physiol 48:752–755PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Moons A, Prinsen E, Bauw G, Montagu MV (1997) Antagonistic effects of abscisic acid and jasmonates on salt stress-inducible transcripts in rice roots. Plant Cell 9:2243–2259PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Morgan PW, Drew MC (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to stress. Physiol Plant 100:620–630Google Scholar
  157. Moussatche P, Klee HJ (2004) Autophosphorylation activity of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor multigene family. J Biol Chem 279:48734–48741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Muthukumarasamy M, Panneerselvam R (1997a) Triazole induced protein metabolism in the salt stressed Raphanus sativus seedlings. J Indian Bot Soc 76:39–42Google Scholar
  160. Muthukumarasamy M, Panneerselvam R (1997b) Amelioration of NaCl stress by triadimefon in peanut seedlings. Plant Growth Regul 22:157–162Google Scholar
  161. Naqvi S (1999) Plant hormones and stress phenomena. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop physiology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 645–660Google Scholar
  162. Nilsen ET, Orcutt DM (1996) The physiology of plants under stress-abiotic factors. Wiley, New York, pp 118–130Google Scholar
  163. Nojavan-Asghari M, Ishizawa K (1998) Inhibitory effects of methyl jasmonate on the germination and ethylene production in cocklebur seeds. J Plant Growth Regul 17:13–18Google Scholar
  164. O’Malley RC, Rodriguez FI, Esch JJ, Binder BM, O’Donnell P, Klee HJ, Bleecker AB (2005) Ethylene-binding activity, gene expression levels, and receptor system output for ethylene receptor family members from Arabidopsis and tomato. Plant J 41:651–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Pal M, Singh DK, Rao LS, Singh KP (2004) Photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in salinity tolerant and sensitive rice cultivars. Indian J Plant Physiol 9:407–412Google Scholar
  166. Panneerselvam R, Muthukumarasamy M, Karikalan L (1997) Triadimefon enhance growth and net photosynthetic rate in Nacl stressed plant of Raphanus stivus L. Photosyntheica 34(4):605–609Google Scholar
  167. Pedranzani H, Racagni G, Alemano S, Miersch O, Ramírez I, Peña-Cortés H, Taleisnik E, Machado-Domenech E, Abdala G (2003) Salt tolerant tomato plants show increased levels of jasmonic acid. Plant Growth Regul 4(1):149–158Google Scholar
  168. Pedranzani H, Sierra-de-Grado R, Vigliocco A, Miersch O, Abdala G (2007) Cold and water stresses produce changes in endogenous jasmonates in two populations of Pinus pinaster Ait. Plant Growth Regul 52:111–116Google Scholar
  169. Peng S, Huang J, Sheehy JE, Laza RC, Visperas RM, Zhong X, Centeno CS, Khush GS, Cassman KG (2004) Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(27):9971–9975PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. Pierik R, Tholen D, Poorter H, Visser EJW, Voesenek LACJ (2006) The Janus face of ethylene: growth inhibition and stimulation. Trends Plant Sci 11:176–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Popova LP, Stoinova ZG, Maslenkova LT (1995) Involvement of abscisic acid in photosynthetic process in Hordeum vulgare L during salinity stress. J Plant Growth Regul 14:211–218Google Scholar
  172. Pospíšilová J (2003) Interaction of cytokinins and abscisic acid during regulation of stomatal opening in bean leaves. Photosynthetica 41:49–56Google Scholar
  173. Pospíšilová J, Synková H, Rulcová J (2000) Cytokinins and water stress. Biol Plant 43:321–328Google Scholar
  174. Prado FE, Boero C, Gallarodo M, Gonzalez JA (2000) Effect of NaCl on germination, growth and soluble sugar content in Chenopodium quinoa willd seeds. Bot Bull Acad Sin 41:27–34Google Scholar
  175. Prakash L, Prathapasenan G (1990) NaCl and gibberellic acid induced changes in the content of auxin, the activity of cellulose and pectin lyase during leaf growth in rice (Oryza sativa). Ann Bot 365:251–257Google Scholar
  176. Prakash M, Kannan K, Kumar JS, Veeramani BB, Ganeshan J (1999) Effect of brassinosteroids on germination and seedling behaviour of tomato. Annu Plant Physiol 13(2):178–180Google Scholar
  177. Prochazkova D, Wilhelmova N (2007) Leaf senescence and activities of the antioxidant enzymes. Biol Plant 51:401–406Google Scholar
  178. Radi AF, Shaddad MAK, El-Enany AE, Omran FM (2006) Interactive effects of plant hormones (GA3 or ABA) and salinity ongrowth and some metabolites of wheat seedlings. Dev Plant Soil Sci Plant Nutr 92:436–437Google Scholar
  179. Rakwal R, Tamogami S, Agrawal GK, Iwahashi H (2002) Octadecanoid signaling component “burst” in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling leaves upon wounding by cut and treatment with fungal elicitor chitosan. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:1041–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Raskin I (1992) Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43:439–463Google Scholar
  181. Ribaut JM, Pilet PE (1991) Effect of water stress on growth, osmotic potential and abscisic acid content of maize roots. Physiol Plant 81:156–162Google Scholar
  182. Ribaut JM, Pilet PE (1994) Water stress and indole-3ylacetic acid content of maize roots. Planta 193:502–507Google Scholar
  183. Ritchie S, Gilroy S (1998) Gibberellins, regulating genes and germination. New Phytol 140:363–383Google Scholar
  184. Sadka A, DeWald DB, May GD, Park WD, Mullet JE (1994) Phosphate modulates transcription of soybean VspB and other sugar-inducible genes. Plant Cell 6:737–749PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. Sairam RK, Deshmukh PS, Shukla DS (1989) Effect of ABA and CCC on water stress induced carbon dioxide and nitrate assimilation processes in tolerant and susceptible wheat genotypes. Ann Plant Physiol 3:98–107Google Scholar
  186. Sakai H, Hua J, Chen QG, Chang C, Medrano LJ, Bleecker AB, Meyerowitz EM (1998) ETR2 is an ETR1-like gene involved in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:5812–5817PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  187. Saniewski M, Miyamoto K, Ueda J (1998) Methyl jasmonate induces gums and stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in peach shoots. J Plant Growth Regul 17:121–124Google Scholar
  188. Sankhla D, Sankhla N, Upadhyaya A, Kachhwaha S, Mali S, Dinesh R, Joshi S (1997) Effect of uniconazole on growth and activities of active oxygen processing enzymes in Ziziphus seedlings. Proc Plant Growth Regul Soc Am 24:208–212Google Scholar
  189. Sasse JM (1991) The case for brassinosteroids as endogenous plant hormones. In: Cutler HG, Yokota T, Adam G (eds) Brassinosteroids: chemistry, bioactivity and applications. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 158–166Google Scholar
  190. Schaller GE, Bleecker AB (1995) Ethylene-binding sites generated in yeast expressing the Arabidopsis ETR1 gene. Science 270:1809–1811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Senaratna T, Touchell D, Bumm E, Dixon K (2000) Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plants. Plant Growth Regul 30:157–161Google Scholar
  192. Seo HS, Song JT, Cheong JJ, Lee YH, Lee YW, Hwang I, Lee JS, Choi YD (2001) Jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase: a key enzyme for jasmonate-regulated plant response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:4788–4793PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. Sharma R, Lakhvir S (1988) Effect of phenolic compounds on some biochemical parameters during seed development in raya Brassica juncea L. J Plant Sci Res 4:69–72Google Scholar
  194. Sharma YK, Leon J, Raskin I, Davis KR (1996) Ozone-induced resistances in Arabidopsis thaliana—the role of salicylic acid in the accumulation of defense-related transcripts and induced resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5099–5104PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. Sharma N, Abrams SR, Waterer DR (2005) Uptake, movement, activity, and persistence of an abscisic acid analog (80 acetylene ABA methyl ester) in marigold and tomato. J Plant Growth Regul 24:28–35Google Scholar
  196. Shaterian J, Georges F, Hussain A, Waterer D, De Jong H, Tanino KK (2005) Root to shoot communication and abscisic acid in calreticulin (CR) gene expression and salt-stress tolerance in grafted diploid potato clones. Environ Exp Bot 53:323–332Google Scholar
  197. Sheehy JE, Elmido A, Centeno G, Pablico P (2005) Searching for new plant for climate change. J Agric Meteorol 60:463–468Google Scholar
  198. Shi HZ, Zhu JK (2002) Regulation of expression of the vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene AtNHX1 by salt stress and abscisic acid. Plant Mol Biol 50:543–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Shin Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (1997) Gene expression and signal transduction in water-stress response. Plant Physiol 115:327–334Google Scholar
  200. Shrivastava P, Saxena RR, Xalxo MS, Verulkar SB (2012) Effect of high temperature at different growth stages on rice yield and grain quality traits. J Rice Res 5(1 and 2):29–42Google Scholar
  201. Singh B, Usha K (2003) Salicylic acid induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regul 3:137–141Google Scholar
  202. Sinha SK, Srivastava SH, Tripathi RD (1993) Influence of some growth regulators and cations on inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by lead in maize. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 51:241–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Smith D (1967) Carbohydrates in grasses. II. Sugar and fructosan composition of the stem bases of bromegrass and timothy at several growth stages and in different plant partsat anthesis. Crop Sci 7:62–67Google Scholar
  204. Staswick PE (1994) Storage proteins of vegetative plant tissues. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 45:303–322Google Scholar
  205. Staswick PE, Su W, Howell SH (1992) Methyl jasmonate inhibition of root growth and induction of a leaf protein are decreased in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:6837–6840PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  206. Sun TP, Gubler F (2004) Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 55:197–223Google Scholar
  207. Swamy PM, Smith B (1999) Role of abscisic acid in plant stress tolerance. Curr Sci 76:1220–1227Google Scholar
  208. Tani T, Sobajima H, Okada K, Chujo T, Arimura S, Tsutsumi N, Nishimura M, Seto H, Nojiri H, Yamane H (2008) Identification of the OsOPR7 gene encoding 12-oxophytodienoate reductase involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in rice. Planta 227:517–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Tasgin E, Atici O, Nalbantoglu B (2003) Effects of salicylic acid and cold on freezing tolerance in winter wheat leaves. Plant Growth Regul 41:231–236Google Scholar
  210. Thaler JS, Fidantsef AL, Bostock RM (2002) Antagonism between jasmonate- and salicylate-mediated induced plant resistance: effects of concentration and timing of elicitation on defense-related proteins, herbivore, and pathogen performance in tomato. J Chem Ecol 28:1131–1159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Thomas DS, Eamus D (1999) The influence of predawn leaf water potential on stomatal responses to atmospheric water content at constant Ci and on stem hydraulic conductance and foliar ABA concentrations. J Exp Bot 50:243–251Google Scholar
  212. Tran LSP, Urao T, Qin F, Maruyama K, Kakimoto T, Shinozaki K, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K (2007) Functional analysis of AHK1/ATHK1 and cytokinin receptor histidine kinases in response to abscisic acid, drought, and salt stress in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:20623–20628PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  213. Trejo CL, Davies WJ (1991) Drought-induced closure of Phaseolus vulgaris L. stomata precedes leaf water deficit and any increase in xylem ABA concentration. J Exp Bot 42:1507–1516Google Scholar
  214. Ueda J, Kato J (1980) Isolation and identification of a senescence-promoting substance from wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.). Plant Physiol 66:246–249PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  215. Ueda J, Kato J (1982) Inhibition of cytokinin-induced plant growth by jasmonic acid and its methyl ester. Physiol Plant 54:249–252Google Scholar
  216. Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (1997) Effect of brassinosteroids on salinity induced growth inhibition of ground nut seedlings. Indian J Plant Physiol 2(2):156–157Google Scholar
  217. Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (1998) Effect of brassinosteroids on growth, metabolic content and yield of Arachis hypogaea. Phytochemistry 48:927–930Google Scholar
  218. Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (2001) Effect of brassinosteroids on growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) under field conditions. Indian J Plant Physiol 6:326–328Google Scholar
  219. Vettakkorumakankav NA (1999) Crucial role for gibberellin in stress protecting of plants. Plant Cell Physiol 40:542–548Google Scholar
  220. Wan-Hong C, Jun L, Xin-Jian H, Rui-Ling M, Hua-Lin Z, Shou-Yi C, Jin-Song Z (2007) Modulation of ethylene responses affects plant salt-stress responses. Plant Physiol 143(2):707–719Google Scholar
  221. Wang Y, Mopper S, Hasentein KH (2001) Effects of salinity on endogenous ABA, IAA, JA, and SA in Iris hexagona. J Chem Ecol 27:327–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. Wang KLC, Li H, Ecker JR (2002) Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks. Plant Cell 14 Suppl:S131–S151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Wasternack C, Parthier B (1997) Jasmonate-signalled plant gene expression. Trends Plant Sci 2(8):302–307Google Scholar
  224. Wilen RW, Sacco M, Gusta LW, Krishna P (1995) Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on freezing and thermo tolerance of brome grass (Bromus inermis) cell cultures. Physiol Plant 95:195–202Google Scholar
  225. Wilkinson S, Corlett JE, Oger L, Davies WJ (1998) Effects of xylem pH on transpiration from wild-type and flacca tomato leaves. Avital role for abscisic acid in preventing excessive water loss even from wellwatered plants. Plant Physiol 117:703–710PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  226. Wolbang CM, Chandler PM, Smith JJ, Ross JJ (2004) Auxin from the developing inflorescence is required for the biosynthesis of active gibberellins in barley stems. Plant Physiol 134:769–776PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  227. Xiong L, Schumaker K, Zhu JK (2002) Cell signaling during cold, drought and salt stress. Plant Cell 14:165–183Google Scholar
  228. Yamaguchi S (2008) Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:225–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. Yancey PH, Clark ME, Hand SC, Bowlis RD, Somero GN (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of osmolyte system. Science 217:1214–1222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Yuan BC, Li ZZ, Liu H, Gao M, Zhang YY (2007) Microbial biomass and activity in salt affected soils under arid conditions. Appl Soil Ecol 35:319–328. doi: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2006.07.004 Google Scholar
  231. Zhang J, Davies WJ (1989) Abscisic acid produced in dehydrating roots may enable the plant to measure the water status of the soil. Plant Cell Environ 12:73–81Google Scholar
  232. Zhang J, Davies WJ (1990a) Changes in the concentration of ABA in xylem sap as a function of changing soil water status will account for changes in leaf conductance. Plant Cell Environ 13:277–285Google Scholar
  233. Zhang J, Davies WJ (1990b) Does ABA in the xylem controls the rate of leaf growth in soil-dried maize and sunflower plants. J Exp Bot 41:1125–1132Google Scholar
  234. Zhang J, Schurr U, Davies WJ (1987) Control of stomatal behaviour by abscisic acid which apparently originates in roots. J Exp Bot 38:1174–1181Google Scholar
  235. Zhang J, Jia W, Yang J, Ismail AM (2006) Role of ABA in integrating plant responses to drought and salt stresses. Field Crop Res 97:111–119Google Scholar
  236. Zhao HJ, Lin XW, Shi HZ, Chang SM (1995) The regulating effect of phenolic compounds on the physiological characteristics and yield of soybeans. Acta Agron Sin 21:351–355Google Scholar
  237. Zholkevich VN, Pustovoytova TN (1993) The role of Cucumis sativum L. leaves and content of phytohormones under soil drought. Russ J Plant Physiol 40:676–680Google Scholar
  238. Zhu JK (2000) Genetic analysis of plant salt tolerance using Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 124:941–948PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  239. Zhu JK (2001) Plant salt tolerance. Trends Plant Sci 6:66–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Zhu JK (2002) Salt and drought stress signal transduction in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 53:247–273Google Scholar
  241. Zhu BC, Su J, Cham MC, Verma DPS, Fan YL, Wu R (1998) Over expression of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene and analysis of tolerance to water stress and salt stress in transgenic rice. Plant Sci 139:41–48Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shah Fahad
    • 1
  • Lixiao Nie
    • 1
  • Yutiao Chen
    • 1
  • Chao Wu
    • 1
  • Dongliang Xiong
    • 1
  • Shah Saud
    • 2
  • Liu Hongyan
    • 1
  • Kehui Cui
    • 1
  • Jianliang Huang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, MOA Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Crop Physiology and Production Center, College of Plant Science and TechnologyHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of HorticulturalNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations