Advertisement

Promoting Reflection in the Laboratory

  • Lap Ki ChanEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The traditional approach to dissection, with students following a set of specific instructions to reveal the structures for studying, does not make maximal use of the small group setting in the gross anatomy laboratory. In problem-oriented dissection (POD), a clinical case is introduced before the students start dissecting the cadavers, which have been prepared to mimic the clinical condition in the case. The students need to reflect on their basic anatomical knowledge in order to devise a clinical procedure which needs to be done on their patients (i.e., the cadavers). They then perform their self-devised procedure on the cadaver, followed by the dissection of the region to look at the results of their procedure. The dissection results prompt the students to reflect on their self-devised procedure and the anatomy. Students then go to the literature to search for the recommended way(s) of performing the clinical procedure, which will stimulate students to further reflect by comparing their self-devised procedure to the recommended one(s). Different groups of students then gather together again in the laboratory to share their self-devised procedures, the results of their procedures on the cadavers, and their reflections. The teacher in the POD should be a facilitator, whose role is to guide the students to reflect and to apply their anatomical knowledge. One method to structure the teacher-student interactions is the one-minute preceptor model, a learner-centered and time-efficient framework which provides rich feedback and promotes reflection. It consists of five microskills: get a commitment from the students; probe for supporting evidence; reinforce what was done right; correct errors and fill in omissions; and teach a general rule.

Keywords

Student Interaction Anatomical Knowledge Anatomy Laboratory Intended Learning Outcome Dissection Room 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Kolb DA. Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1984.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lachman N, Pawlina W. Integrating professionalism in early medical education: the theory and application of reflective practice in the anatomy curriculum. Clin Anat. 2006;19:456–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drake R. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum. Anat Rec. 1998;253:28–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller SA, Perrotti W, Silverthorn DU, Dalley AF, Rarey KE. From college to clinic: reasoning over memorization is key for understanding anatomy. Anat Record (New Anat). 2002;269:69–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McLachlan JC, Patten D. Anatomy teaching: ghosts of the past, present and future. Med Educ. 2006;40:243–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mann K, Gordon J, MacLeod A. Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2009;14:595–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mamede S, Schmidt HG. The structure of reflective practice in medicine. Med Educ. 2004;38:1302–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moon J. Reflection in learning and professional development. London: Kogan Page; 1999.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anderson LW, Krathwohl DR, Airasian PW, et al. A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: a revision of bloom’s taxonomy of education objectives. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2001. p. 336.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hmelo-Silver CE, Barrows HS. Goals and strategies of a problem-based learning facilitator. Interdisc J Prob Learn. 2006;1:21–39.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Neher JO, Gordon KC, Meyer B, Stevens N. A five-step “microskills” model of clinical teaching. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1992;5:419–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salerno SM, O’Malley PG, Pangaro LN, Wheeler GA, Moores LK, Jackson JL. Faculty development seminars based on the one-minute preceptor improve feedback in the ambulatory setting. J Gen Intern Med. 2002;17:779–87.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferenchick G, Simpson D, Blackman J, DaRosa D, Dunnington G. Strategies for efficient and effective teaching in the ambulatory care setting. Acad Med. 1997;72:277–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Teherani A, O’Sullivan P, Aagaard EM, Morrison EH, Irby DM. Student perceptions of the one minute preceptor and traditional preceptor models. Med Teach. 2007;29:323–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chan LK, Wiseman J. Use of the one-minute preceptor as a teaching tool in the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ. 2011;4:235–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Neher JO, Stevens NG. The one minute preceptor: shaping the teaching conversation. Fam Med. 2003;35:391–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kertis M. The one-minute preceptor: a five-step tool to improve clinical teaching skills. J Nurses Staff Dev. 2007;23:238–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Andersen J, Nussbaum J, Pecchioni L, Grant JA. Interaction skills in instructional settings. In: Vangelisti AL, Daly JA, Friedrich GW, editors. Teaching communication: theory, research, and methods. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1999. p. 359–74.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gustafson KL, Bennett Jr W. Promoting learner reflection: issues and difficulties emerging from a three-year study. United States Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Barrows HS, Tamblyn RM. Problem-based learning. New York: Springer; 1980.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fox RD, Miner C. Motivation and the facilitation of changing, learning, and participation in educational programs for health professionals. J Contin Educ Heal Prof. 1999;19:132–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pearson D, Heywood P. Portfolio use in general practice vocational training: a survey of GP registrars. Med Educ. 2004;38:87–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gustafson C, Fagerberg I. Reflection, the way to professional development? J Clin Nurs. 2004;13:271–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sanders J. The use of reflection in medical education: AMEE guide no.44. Med Teach. 2009;31:685–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Medical and Health Sciences Education, Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of MedicineThe University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations