Advertisement

Energy Deposition in Gas NPL Active Media

  • S. P. Melnikov
  • A. N. Sizov
  • A. A. Sinyanskii
  • George H. Miley
Chapter

Abstract

As was noted in Sect. 1.2 of Chap. 1, the nuclear reactions that can be used for pumping gas NPLs in experiments with pulsed reactors are:
$$ {}^3\mathrm{H}\mathrm{e}+n\to {}^3\mathrm{H}+p+0.76\;\mathrm{M}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{V} $$
$$ {}^{10}\mathrm{B}+n\to {}^7\mathrm{L}\mathrm{i}+\alpha +2.38\;\mathrm{M}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{V}, $$
$$ {}^{235}\mathrm{U}+n\to \mathrm{fragments}+168\;\mathrm{M}\mathrm{e}\mathrm{V}. $$
When reaction (7.1) is used, the laser medium is excited by protons and tritium ions. In this case, 3He plays the role of a buffer component of the laser mixture and is simultaneously a volume pumping source. Calculations of the specific energy deposition to the gas medium when the reaction (7.1) is used were carried out in the studies [1, 2]. The gas pressure and the transverse dimension of the laser cell were varied (it was assumed that the length of the cell greatly exceeded its transverse dimension). It was shown that for each pressure value there is an optimal transverse dimension of the cell. When the dimensions are less than optimal, the losses of reaction (7.1) products on the walls of the cell become great. When the dimensions are greater than optimal, the decrease of the neutron flux in the direction from the cell boundary to the depth of the gas volume starts to have an effect. Some results of calculations are provided in Figs. 7.1 and 7.2. It should be noted that the model [2] makes it possible to perform calculations for different neutron spectra when more precise deceleration principles of charged particles are used. The results of the calculations in studies [1, 2] for the case of a mono-energetic flux of thermal neutrons differ by 10–15 % (Fig. 7.1).

Keywords

Active Layer Energy Deposition Transverse Dimension Fission Fragment Neutron Pulse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    J.W. Wilson, R.J. DeYoung, Power density in direct nuclear-pumped 3He lasers. J. Appl. Phys. 49(3), 980–988 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A.A. Pikulev, The energy deposition in nuclear-pumped gas lasers based on helium-3 (Energovklad v gazovykh lazerakh s yadernoy nakachkoy na osnove geliya-3). ZhTF 76(10), 91–96 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.W. Wilson, R.J. DeYoung, Power deposition in volumetric 235UF6-He fission-pumped nuclear lasers. J. Appl. Phys. 49(3), 989–993 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R.J. DeYoung, Y.J. Shiu, M.D. Williams, Fission-fragment nuclear lasing of Ar(He)-Xe. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37(8), 679–681 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R.J. DeYoung, W.R. Weaver, Spectra from nuclear-excited plasmas. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70(5), 500–506 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J.C. Guyot, G.H. Miley, J.T. Verdeyen, Application of a two-region heavy charged particle model to noble-gas plasmas induced by nuclear radiations. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 48(3), 373–386 (1972)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.N. Sizov, On the link of spatial non-uniformities of pumping with output powers of lasers excited by uranium fission fragments (O svyazi prostranstvennykh neodnorodnostey nakachki s moshchnostyu generatsii lazerov, vozbuzhdayemykh oskolkami deleniya urana). Lett. ZhTF 20(9), 64–67 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.J. Richards, B.A. Rubin, Irradiation of small volumes by contained radioisotopes. Nucleonics 6(6), 42–49 (1950)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Steinberg, Deposition efficiency of fission-fragment energy. Nucleonics 21(8), 151–153 (1963)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.B. Leffert, D.B. Rees, F.E. Jamerson, Noble gas plasma produced by fission fragments. J. Appl. Phys. 37(1), 133–142 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.H. Nguen, L.M. Grossman, Ionization by fission fragments escaping from a source medium. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 30(2), 233–241 (1967)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G.H. Miley, P.E. Thiess, A unified approach to two-region ionization-excitation density calculations. Nucl. Appl. 6(5), 434–451 (1969)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A.K. Chung, M.A. Prelas, The transport of heavy charged particles in a cylindrical nuclear-pumped plasma. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 86(3), 267–274 (1984)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.T. Kazazyan, B.A. Litvinenko, L.P. Roginets, 4.A. Savushkin, Physical Foundations of the Use of the Kinetic Energy of Fission Fragments in Radiation Chemistry (Fizicheskiye osnovy ispolzovaniya kineticheskoy energii oskolkov deleniya v radiatsionnoy khimii) (Nauka i tekhnika, Minsk, 1972)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    V.Y. Matyev, Methods of calculation of the energy deposition of ions in non-uniform media (Metody rascheta energovklada ionov v neodnorodnykh sredakh). Proceedings of the Specialist Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Obninsk, 1993, vol. 2, pp. 79–88.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    V.Y. Matyev, A.N. Sizov, The influence of non-uniformities of the laser medium on gas-dynamic calculations of nuclear-pumped lasers, Ibid, pp. 209–218.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    V.Y. Matyev, The energy deposition of fission fragments in nuclear-pumped lasers. I. General method of calculation (Energovlad oskolkov deleniya v lazerakh s yadernoy nakachkoy. I. Obshchiy metod rascheta). ZhTF 71(1), 72–78 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. Kahn, R. Harman, V. Forgue, Energy distributions of fission fragments from uranium dioxide films. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 23(1), 8–20 (1965)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.N. Sizov, Y.N. Deryugin, Calculation of spatial non-uniformities in cylindrical nuclear-pumped gas lasers (Raschet prostranstvennykh neodnorodnostey v tsilindricheskikh gazovykh lazerakh s yadernoy nakachkoy). Tez. dokl. VI Vsesoyuz. konf. “Optika lazerov,” Leningrad, 1990, p. 132.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    A.N. Sizov, Y.N. Deryugin, Calculations of spatial non-uniformities in cylindrical nuclear-pumped gas lasers (Raschety prostranstvennykh neodnorodnostey v tsilindricheskikh gazovykh lazerakh s nakachkoy oskolkami deleniya). ZhTF 62(9), 107–111 (1992)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.G. Anuchin, K.F. Grebenkin, Y.Z. Kandiyev, Y.I. Cherepanova, Computational investigation of pumping of a gas medium by charged particles/nuclear reaction products (Raschetnoye issledovaniye nakachki gazovoy sredy zaryazhennymi chastitsami-produktami yadernykh reaktsiy). ZhTF 61(1), 3–8 (1991)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.R. Torczynski, On the motion of a gas experiencing range-dependent volumetric heating. J. Fluid Mech. 201, 167–188 (1989)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.R. Torczynski, R.J. Gross, Axis shielding in cylindrical nuclear-reactor-pumped lasers. J. Appl. Phys. 64(9), 4323–4328 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    G.B. Vlokh, L.L. Kazakov, N.S. Kosulin, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.E. Filippov, V.N. Cherevatyuk, Film energy releasing elements for nuclear-pumped lasers (Plenochnyye energhovydelyayushchiye elementy dlya lazerov s yadernoy nakachkoy). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Arzamas-16, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 47–54.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.V. Borovkov, G.B. Vlokh, B.V. Lazhintsev, V.A. Nor-Arevyan, A.N. Sizov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.E. Filippov, Energy deposition efficiency in lasers pumped by uranium fission fragments (Effektivnost energovklada v lazerakh s nakachkoy oskolkami deleniya urana). Kvantovaya elektronica 22(3), 219–224 (1995)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.N. Sizov, Influence of non-uniformities of uranium-containing layers on the energy deposition to the active medium of nuclear-pumped lasers (Vliyaniye neodnordnostey uransoderzhashchikh sloyev na energovklad v aktivnuyu sredu lazerov s yadernoy nakachkoy). Proceedings of the Specialist Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Obninsk, 1993, vol. 3, pp. 83–88.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    V.V. Borovkov, B.V. Lazhintsev, S.P. Melnikov, I.N. Mochkayev, V.A. Nor-Arevyan, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.I. Fedorov, An investigation of optical non-uniformities in nuclear-pumped lasers (Issledovaniye opticheskikh neodnorodnostey v lazerakh s yadernoy nakachkoy). Izvestiya AN SSSR. Ser. fizicheskaya 54(10), 2009–2015 (1990)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    E.P. Magda, S.L. Mukhin, V.A. Kryzhanovskiy, A.V. Bochkov, Determination of the energy deposition to a gas medium (Opredeleniye energovklada v gazovuyu sredu). Pisma v ZhTF 19(23), 54–57 (1993)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G.B. Vlokh, A.I. Konak, V.Y. Matyev, A.N. Sizov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.E. Filippov, Measurement of energy release in a nuclear-pumped gas laser (Izmereniye energovydeleniya v gazovom lazere s yadernoy nakachkoy). Proceedings of the Specialist Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Obninsk, 1993, vol. 2, pp. 55–62.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.R. Torczynski, R.J. Gross, G.N. Hays, G.A. Harms, D.R. Neal, D.A. McArthur, W.J. Alford, Fission-fragment energy deposition in argon. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 101(3), 280–284 (1989)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.G. Anuchin, K.F. Grebenkin, V.A. Kryzhanovskiy, E.P. Magda, Efficiency of pumping of gas media with fission fragments (Effektivnost nakachki gazovykh sred oskolkami deleniya). Pisma v ZhTF 18(5), 92–95 (1992)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.A. Androsenko, P.A. Androsenko, N.V. Gusev, P.P. Dyachenko, Modeling of neutron-physical and gas-dynamic processes in an NPL (Modelirovaniye neytronno-fizicheskikh i gazodinamicheskikh protsessov v LYaN). Proceedings of the Specialist Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Obninsk, 1993, vol. 2, pp. 23–40.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    E.P. Magda, A.V. Bochkov, V.A. Kryzhanovskiy, S.L. Mukhin, An investigation of the influence of nitrogen on the value of the measured pressure pulse in determining the energy deposition of fission fragments to helium and argon (Issledovaniye vliyaniya azota na velichinu izmerennogo impulsa davleniya pri opredelenii energovklada oskolkov deleniya v geliy i argon). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Arzamas-16, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 452–456.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J.R. Torczynski, Heat transfer regimes in nuclear-reactor-pumped gas lasers. J. Thermophys. Heat Trans. 5(3), 318–326 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    V.V. Borovkov, G.B. Vlokh, B.V. Lazhintsev, V.A. Nor-Arevyan, A.N. Sizov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.E. Filippov, Efficiency of the energy deposition of fission fragments to NPLs (Effektivnost energovklada oskolkov deleniya v LYaN). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Arzamas-16, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 388–396.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V.Y. Matyev, The gas dynamics of near-central regions in sealed NPL channels (Gazodinamika okolotsentralnykh oblastey v germetichnykh kanalakh LYaN), Ibid, pp. 410–420.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.R. Torczynski, D.R. Neal, Transient gas motion in nuclear-reactor-pumped lasers: computational and experimental results. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 113(3), 189–206 (1993)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    I.I. Borovkov, B.V. Lazhintsev, V.A. Nor-Arevyan, A.N. Sizov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.F. Fedorov, Specific features of gas dynamics of flowing NPLs and problems of forming light-beam quality (Osobennosti gazodinamiki prokachnykh LYaN i problemy formirovaniya kachestva svetovogo puchka). Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference “Physics of Nuclear-Excited Plasma and Problems of Nuclear-Pumped Lasers,” Arzamas-16, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 399–406.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    V.V. Borovkov, B.V. Lazhintsev, V.A. Nor-Arevyan, A.N. Sizov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, G.F. Fedorov, Specific features of gas dynamics of flowing lasers excited by uranium fission fragments (Osobennosti gazodinamiki prokachnykh lazerov, vozbuzhdayemykh oskolkami deleniya yader urana). Kvantovaya elektronika 22(12), 1187–1191 (1995)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A.M. Voinov, L.Y. Dovbysh, V.N. Krivonosov, S.P. Melnikov, I.V. Podmoshenskiy, A.A. Sinyanskiy, Low-threshold nuclear-pumped lasers on atomic transitions of xenon (Nizkoporogovyye lazery s yadernoy nakachkoy na perekhodakh atomarnogo ksenona). Doklady AN SSSR 245(1), 80–83 (1979)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A.M. Voinov, L.Y. Dovbysh, V.N. Krivonosov, S.P. Melnikov, I.V. Podmoshenskiy, A.A. Sinyanskiy, A high-pressure helium-krypton laser excited by uranium fission fragments (Geliy-kriptonovyy lazer vysokogo davleniya, vozbuzhdayemyy oskolkami deleniya urana). ZhTF 52(7), 1346–1350 (1982)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A.M. Voinov, L.Y. Dovbysh, V.N. Krivonosov, S.P. Melnikov, I.V. Podmoshenskiy, A.A. Sinyanskiy, An infrared nuclear-pumped laser based on mixtures of He + Xe and Ar + Xe (Infrakrasnyy lazer s yadernoy nakachkoy na smesyakh He + Xe i Ar + Xe). Pisma v ZhTF 7(16), 1016–1020 (1981)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    A.I. Konak, S.P. Melnikov, V.V. Porkhayev, A.A. Sinyanskiy, Lasing on Xe atom transitions with excitation of a Kr-Xe mixture and pure xenon by uranium fission fragments (Generatsiya na perekhodakh atoma Xe pri vozbuzhdenii smesi Kr-Xe i chistogo ksenona oskolkami deleniya urana). Kvantovaya elektronika 22(12), 1184–1186 (1995)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.M. Voinov, S.P. Melnikov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, A kinetic model of recombination lasers based on transitions of the xenon atom (Kineticheskaya model rekombinatsionnykh lazerov na perekhodakh atoma ksenona). ZhTF 60(10), 100–113 (1990)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    S.P. Melnikov, A.A. Sinyanskiy, Kinetics of IR nuclear-pumped lasers on transitions of the krypton and argon atom (Kinetika IK-lazerov s yadernoy nakachkoy na perekhodakh atomov kriptona i argona). ZhTF 62(6), 159–169 (1992)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A.V. Karelin, O.V. Sereda, V.V. Kharitonov, K.R. Chikin, F. Yu. Naumkin, Heating of a gas by fission fragments (Nagrev gaza oskolkami deleniya). Atom. Energ. 61(1), 44–46 (1986)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.V. Karelin, V.V. Kharitonov, K.R. Chikin, On direct conversion of nuclear energy into light radiation (O pryamom preobrazovanii yadernoy energii v svetovoye izlucheniye), in Issues of Thermal Physics in Nuclear Power Units (Voprosy teplofiziki v yadernykh energeticheskikh ustanovkakh) (Energatomizdat, Moscow, 1986), pp. 3–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. P. Melnikov
    • 1
  • A. N. Sizov
    • 1
  • A. A. Sinyanskii
    • 1
  • George H. Miley
    • 2
  1. 1.The Russian Federal Nuclear CenterSarovRussia
  2. 2.University of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations