Advertisement

Comments About Nuclear-Pumped Laser Research in the United States

  • S. P. Melnikov
  • A. N. Sizov
  • A. A. Sinyanskii
  • George H. Miley
Chapter

Abstract

This book primarily discusses NPL research in Russia. The Russian program has been larger and remains active whereas work in the United States and elsewhere has dwindled. Shortly after the end of the Cold War, two circumstances combined to cause stoppage of NPL work. While the military need ceased, public opposition to nuclear power mounted following the Three Mile Island Nuclear reactor accident in the United States. Such concerns clearly carried over to a reactor pumped laser, i.e. to NPLs. Here we briefly review earlier work is the United States, prior to a build-up of effort as part of the “Star Wars” program as cold war tension grew.

Keywords

Pump Power Fission Fragment Sandia National Laboratory Fission Reactor Photolytic Laser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

As indicated by the references, many people have made significant contributions to NPL research in the United States. This chapter was largely adapted, with some additions (especially regarding theoretical advances) from a prior review in the Journal of Laser and Particle Beams [2], and a presentation at the ANS Conference on Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission authored by Miley, R. DeYoung, D. McArthur, and M. Prelas [1].

References

  1. 1.
    G.H. Miley, D. McArthur, M. Prelas, R. DeYoung, Fission Reactor Pumped Lasers: History and Prospects. Fifty years with nuclear fission (American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, IL, 1989), p. 333Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.H. Miley, Overview of nuclear-pumped lasers. Laser Part. Beams 11(3), 575 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D.R. Neal, W.C. Sweatt, J.R. Torczynski, D.A. McArthur, R.J. Gross, W.J. Alford, G.N. Hays, Application of high speed photography to time-resolved wavefront measurement. Proc. SPIE 832, 5256 (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D.R. Neal, W.C. Sweatt, J.R. Torczynski, Resonator design with and intracavity time-varying index gradient. Proc SPIE 965, 130 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.K. Rice, D.R. Neal, D.A. McArthur, G.N. Hays, W.J. Alford, D.E. Bodette, W.C. Sweatt, Reactor pumped laser research at Sandia National Laboratories, 1987, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers ‘86, (STS Press, McLean, VA, p. 571)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D.A. McArthur, G.H. Miller, P.B. Tollefsrud, Pumping of high‐pressure CO2 laser media via a fast‐burst reactor and electrical sustainer. Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 303 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    D.A. McArthur, P.B. Tollefsrud, Observation of laser action in CO gas excited only by fission fragments. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 187 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.A. McArthur, G.H. Miley, R. DeYoung, M. Prelas, Report SAND76-0584, (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM, 1977); reprinted November 1983Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.A. McArthur, G.N. Hays, D.R. Neal, J.K. Rice, Recent results from nuclear-pumped laser studies: gain and measurement in XeF, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, ed. by H. Hora, G.H. Miley, vol. 8 (Plenum Press, New York, 1988), p. 75Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    K. Thom, R. Schneider, Nuclear pumped gas lasers, AIAA, 10(4), (1972)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.H. Miley, Review of nuclear pumped lasers, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, ed. by H. Schwarz, H. Hora, vol. 4a (Plenum Press, New York, 1977), p. 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    R.T. Schneider, F. Hohl, Nuclear-pumped lasers, in Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology, ed. by J. Lewins, M. Becker (Plenum Publishing, New York, 1984), p. 123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.H. Miley, Review of nuclear pumped lasers, in Laser Interactions and Related Plasma Phenomena, ed. by H. Hora, G.H. Miley, vol. 6 (Plenum Press, New York, 1984), p. 47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.J. Ebert, L.J. Terderber, H.A. Koehler, R.W. Kuckkuck, D.L. Redhead, Xenon Pumped by Gamma Rays (IEEE IQEC-8, San Francisco, CA, 1974)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    P.B. Lyons, J.S. Clarke, D.S. Metzger, Gamma Initiated HF Laser (IEEE IQEC-8, San Francisco, CA, 1974)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. Herwig, Report C-l 10053-5 (United Aircraft Labs, East Hartford, CT, 1964)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    L. Herwig, Concepts for direct conversion of stored nuclear energy to laser beam power. Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 7, 131 (1964)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    T.R. Schmidt, D.A. McArthur, Report SAND76-0139 (Sandia National Labs, Albuquerque, NM, 1976)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.H. Helmick, J.L. Fuller, R.T. Schneider, Direct nuclear pumping of a helium-xenon laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 327 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.J. DeYoung, N.W. Jalufka, F. Hohl, Direct nuclear-pumped lasers using the 3He(n,p)3H reaction, 1978, In American Inst. Aeronautics and Astronautics, 16th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, p. 991Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.J. DeYoung, Kilowatt multiple‐path 3He‐Ar nuclear‐pumped laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 297 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G.H. Miley, Direct Conversion of Nuclear Radiation Energy (American Nuclear Society and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), Hinsdale, IL, 1971)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.C. Guyot, G.H. Miley, J.T. Verdeyen, Application of a two-region heavy charged particle model to noble-gas plasmas induced by nuclear radiations. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 48(4), 373–386 (1972)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Wang, G.H. Miley, Monte Carlo simulation of radiation-induced plasmas. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 52, 130–141 (1973)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.A. Hassan, J.E. Deese, Electron distribution function in a plasma generated by fission fragments. Phys. Fluids. 19(12), 2005 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S.J.S. Nagalingam, G.H. Miley, Theoretical analysis of nuclear pumped XeF, In Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '80, New Orleans, LA, p. 699Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    R.J. DeYoung et al., Fission‐fragment nuclear lasing of Ar(He)‐Xe. Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 679 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.A. Prelas, F.P. Boody, G.H. Miley, J.F. Kunze, Nuclear driven flashlamps. Laser Part. Beams 6, 25 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    F.P. Boody, M.A. Prelas, Photolytic dual-media nuclear pumping of excimer lasers. AIP Conf. Proc. 100, 349–354 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.J. Kushner, Characteristics of a UF6-H2/HF nuclear pumped laser. J. Appl. Phys. 51(5), 2421–2428 (1980)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    J.W. Wilson, R.J. DeYoung, Power deposition in volumetric 235UF6‐He fission‐pumped nuclear lasers, J. Appl. Phys., 49(3), 989–993Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    M.J. Kushner, Nuclear-reactor pumped lasers excited by ion-ion neutralization. J. Appl. Phys. 54(1), 39–47 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    T.J. Moratz, M.J. Kushner, Fission fragment pumping of a neon plasma. J. Appl. Phys. 63(5), 1796–1798 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    T.J. Moratz, T.D. Saunders, M.J. Kushner, Heavy-ion versus electron-beam excitation of an excimer laser. J. Appl. Phys. 64(8), 3799–3810 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    T.J. Moratz, T.D. Saunders, M.J. Kushner, High-temperature kinetics in He and Ne buffered XeF lasers: the effect on absorption. Appl. Phys. Lett. 54(2), 102–104 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    W.J. Alford, G.N. Hays, M. Ohwa, M.J. Kushner, The effects of He addition on the performance of the fission-fragment excited Ar/Xe atomic xenon laser. J. Appl. Phys. 69(4), 1843–1848 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.W. Shon, M.J. Kushner, G.A. Hebner, G.N. Hays, Predictions for gain in the fission-fragment-excited atomic xenon laser. J. Appl. Phys. 73(6), 2686–2694 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    G.A. Hebner, J.W. Shon, M.J. Kushner, Temperature dependent gain of the atomic xenon laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(21), 2872–2874 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J.W. Shon, M.J. Kushner, Excitation mechanisms and gain modeling of the high-pressure atomic Ar laser in He/Ar mixtures. J. Appl. Phys. 75(4), 1883–1890 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    G.H. Miley, P.E. Thiess, A unified approach to two-region ionization-excitation density calculations. Nucl. Appl. 6, 434–451 (1969)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E.L. Maceda, G.H. Miley, An atomic model for neutral and singly ionized uranium. Nucl. Sci. Eng. 70, 82–95 (1979)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y.R. Shaban, G.H. Miley, Concept for a hybrid uranium gaseous-core laser reactor, (STAIF 2001, Albuquerque, NM, 2001). Accessed 10–14 Feb 2001Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    E.L. Maceda, G.H. Miley, Optical properties of uranium plasmas. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4369–4376 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    G.L. Parks, J.C. Stewart, S. Peyton, NASA CR 72348 (unpublished, available from NTIS, Springfield, VA, 1968)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    M. Petra, G.H. Miley, Thermal blooming in NPLs, SPIE Conference on High-Power Laser Ablation, (Santa Fe, NM, 1998) vol. 3343, pp. 242–253Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    M. Petra, G.H. Miley, Nuclear-powered laser beam profile control method. Laser Part. Beams 11(3), 549–557 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    R.H. Lo, G.H. Miley, Electron energy distribution in a helium plasma created by nuclear radiations. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-2, 198–205 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    G.H. Miley, M.A. Prelas, Nuclear-pumped flashlamp sources, in High-Power Laser Ablation III, ed. by Claude R. Phipps, Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 4065 (2000), pp. 728–742Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    W.H. Williams, G.H. Miley, Nuclear-induced XeBr* flourescence pumping of the atomic iodine laser, in Proceedings of the Specialist Conference on Physics of Nuclear Induced Plasmas and Problems of Nuclear Pumped Lasers (NPL-92) (Obninsk, Russia, 1992)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    W.H. Williams, Nuclear induced XeBr fluorescence pumping of the atomic iodine laser, 1992 Ph.D. Thesis (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    G.H. Miley, W.H. Williams, Nuclear pumped stimulation of the atomic iodine laser, in Proceedings of the 7th Interdisciplinary Laser Science Conference, (Monterey, CA, 1991)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    G.H. Miley, Nuclear pumping of the iodine laser – revisited, SPIE Conference on High-Power Laser Ablation, Santa Fe, NM, vol. 3343 (1998), pp. 692–700Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    D.L. Carroll, J.T. Verdeyen, D.M. King, B. Woodard, L. Skorski, J. Zimmerman, W.C. Solomon, Modeling of the ElectriCOIL system. IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 39(9), 1150–1159 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    G.H. Miley, Overview of nuclear-pumped lasers. Bull. APS 581(24), 117 (1978)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M.A. Akerman, G.H. Miley, D.A. McArthur, A helium‐mercury direct nuclear pumped laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 409 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    R.J. DeYoung, W.E. Wells, G.H. Miley, J.T. Verdeyen, Direct nuclear pumping of a Ne‐N2 laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 519 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M.A. Prelas, Nuclear-pumping of the atomic carbon laser, Ph.D. Thesis (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, 1979)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    B.D. Carter, M.J. Rowe, R.T. Schneider, Nuclear‐pumped cw lasing of the 3He‐Ne system. Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 115 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    R.T. Schneider, B.D. Carter, M.J. Rowe, Reply to comments on the nuclear-pumped cw lasing of the 3He-Ne system. Appl. Phys. 52(11), 6980 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. Soramoto, K. Mochiki, M. Nakazawa, A. Okumura, H. Hayashida, H. Nakamura, New neutron detection methods using laser technique, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sect. A, 306(3), 524Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D.M. Minnema, D.A. McArthur, Reactor-pumped laser: kinetics effects on the SPRIII reactor, in Proceedings of the Fast Burst Reactor Workshop, (Albuquerque, NM, 1986), p. 57Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    D.M. Minnema, D.A. McArthur, Report SAND87-0098, (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM, 1987)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    G.N. Hays, D.A. McArthur, D.R. Neal, J.R. Rice, Gain measurements near 351 nm in 3He/Xe/NF3 mixtures excited by fragments from the 3He(n, p)3H reaction. Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 363 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.M. Voinov, L.E. Dovbysh, V.N. Krivonosov, S.P. Melnikov, L.V. Podmoshenskii, A.A. Sinyanskii, Low-threshold nuclear-pumped lasers using transitions of atomic xenon. Sov. Phys. Dokl. 24, 189 (1979)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    W.J. Alford, G.N. Hays, Measured laser parameters for reactor‐pumped He/Ar/Xe and Ar/Xe lasers. J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3760 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    H.E. Elsayed-Ali, G.H. Miley, Kinetic model of photolytic O2(1Δ) generation. IEEE J. Quantum Eng. 20, 977 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M.O. Scully, G. H. Miley, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, On the nuclear-pumped π–pulse laser, in Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, ed. by H. Hora and G. H. Miley, vol. 8, (1988) pp. 105–107Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    M.O. Scully, R.F. Shea, K. Kompa, Efficient energy extraction from highly forbidden transitions by means of high-power pulses. J. Opt. Soc. B3, 996 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Y.R. Shaban, G.H. Miley, Search for a visible wavelength nuclear pumped laser, In Proceedings of the U.S.-Japan Seminar on Physics of High Power Laser Matter Interactions, (Kyoto, Japan, 1992)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Y.R. Shaban, G.H. Miley, Practical, visible wavelength nuclear-pumped laser. Laser Part. Beams 11, 559 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    M.A. Prelas, F.P. Boody, M. Zediker, M. Rowe, A direct energy conversion technique based on aerosol core reactor concept, in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 1984, IEEE Publication 84CH1958-8, p. 38Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    G.H. Miley, Neutron feedback ICF, Atomkern./Kerntech. 45, 14Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    G.H. Miley, A nuclear pumped laser for the laboratory microfusion facility. Laser Part. Beams 7, 411 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    S. Balog, H. Chung, M. Doczy, R. Duraski, M. Hutcheson, L.R. Eglezopoulos, D. Russ, Nuclear pumped laser for next step ICF driver, 1989 Fusion Tech. 15, 383–390Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    G.H. Miley, 1992 A nuclear pumped flashlamp iodine laser, in Proceedings of the U.S.-Japan Seminar on Physics of High Power Laser Matter Interactions, (Kyoto, Japan)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M.A. Prelas, J.B. Romero, E.F. Pearson, A critical review of fusion systems for radiolytic conversion of inorganics to gaseous fuels. Nucl. Tech. Fusion 2, 143 (1982)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. Chung, M.A. Prelas, Charged particle spectra from B-10 and UO2 slab and spherical sources, 1983, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, IEEE Publication Number 83CH1847-3Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    G.H. Miley, Y. Shaban, M. Petra, R.J. DeYoung, Nuclear pumped laser system for power beaming, in Proceedings of the Nuclear Technologies for Space Exploration, (Jackson, WY, 1992)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. P. Melnikov
    • 1
  • A. N. Sizov
    • 1
  • A. A. Sinyanskii
    • 1
  • George H. Miley
    • 2
  1. 1.The Russian Federal Nuclear CenterSarovRussia
  2. 2.University of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations