Applications of Paper-Based Diagnostics

  • Muhammad Safwan AkramEmail author
  • Ronan Daly
  • Fernando da Cruz Vasconcellos
  • Ali Kemal Yetisen
  • Ian Hutchings
  • Elizabeth A. H. Hall


Paper has been used for applications in analytical and bioanalytical devices for more than a century, owing to its low cost due to its ubiquitous nature. Paper, a cellulosic material, presents several attractive attributes that render it useful in the construction of devices including: biodegradability, biocompatibility, worldwide abundance, chemical stability, three-dimensional fibrous structure, inertness to commonly-used reagents, ease of production and modification. Due to these characteristics, paper is one of the most widely researched substrates for the construction of low-cost disposable devices and sensing platforms. This chapter reviews the changing economic landscape, including the demand for low-cost diagnostics and a price comparison with other inexpensive substrates. The properties of paper, manufacturing challenges, labelling chemistries are also discussed along with the historical trends in marketed, paper-based devices.


Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Alkyl Ketene Dimer Diagnostic Device Defense Advance Research Project Agency Cyclic Olefin Copolymer 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement number 263061.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Safwan Akram
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ronan Daly
    • 2
  • Fernando da Cruz Vasconcellos
    • 1
  • Ali Kemal Yetisen
    • 1
  • Ian Hutchings
    • 2
  • Elizabeth A. H. Hall
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Institute of BiotechnologyUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK
  2. 2.Department of Engineering, Institute of manufacturingUniversity of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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