Skip to main content

Biodiversity and the Parasite-Driven Wedge

  • 962 Accesses

Abstract

The parasite-stress theory of sociality includes a theory of biodiversity: the parasite-driven-wedge model. Regionally localized coevolutionary races between parasites and their hosts result in three anti-parasite behaviors: preference for in-group affiliation and interaction, out-group avoidance (xenophobia), and philopatry. These three behaviors of behavioral immunity become linked within individuals through genetic linkage disequilibrium. In the case of human cultural behavioral immunity, within-individual linkage of behavioral immunity traits results in what we refer to as cultural linkage disequilibrium. Linkage by either process also includes linkage with genetic immunity to local parasites. These linked traits are mutually reinforcing in that as any one increases in frequency due to its adaptiveness, the others do as well. Also, preference for in-group members with behavioral-immunity values and behavior is self-reinforcing, because the in-group members preferred and favored have the same preference. These events create a wedge that gives rise to intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, locally isolate, and diversify the original range of a culture or a species, leading to the genesis of two or more discrete groups from one. The higher the parasite stress in a region, the greater the frequency and intensity of these processes of biodiversity genesis. The parasite-driven-wedge model, then, provides a parapatric (side-by-side) diversification mechanism that we propose accounts for the high diversity of species and cultures in geographical regions of high parasite adversity. Parasite-driven divergence may lead to sympatric speciation, especially at low latitudes, and account for distinct sympatric classes of caste social systems.

Keywords

  • Gross Domestic Product
  • Allopatric Speciation
  • Language Richness
  • Cultural Item
  • Local Parasite

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-08040-6_13
  • Chapter length: 41 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-08040-6
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 13.1
Fig. 13.2

References

  • Allen, A. P., Brown, J. H., & Gillooly, J. F. (2002). Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic-equivalence rule. Science 297: 1545-1548.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Atran, S. (2002). In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. Oxford University Press USA, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barber, I., & Dingemanse, N. J. (2010). Parasitism and the evolutionary ecology of animal personality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B–Biological Sciences 365: 4077-4088.

    PubMed Central  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Barrett, D. B., Kurian, G. T., & Johnson, T. M., Eds. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, Volume 1: The World by Countries: Religionists, Churches, Ministries, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belliure, J., Sorci, G., Møller, A. P. et al. (2000). Dispersal distances predict subspecies richness in birds. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 13: 480-487.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Belmaker, J., Sekercioglu, C. H., & Jetz, W. (2012). Global patterns of specialization and coexistence in bird assemblages. Journal of Biogeography 39: 193-203.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Best, A., Webb, S., White, A. et al. (2011). Host resistance and coevolution in spatially structured populations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 2216-2222.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blais, J., Rico, C., van Oosterhout, C. et al. (2007). MHC adaptive divergence between closely related and sympatric African cichlids. PloS ONE 2: e734. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000734

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Borgerhoff Mulder, M., Nunn, C. L., & Towner, M. C. (2006). Cultural macroevolution and the transmission of traits. Evolutionary Anthropology 15: 52-64.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boyd, R. & Richerson, P. J. (1985). Culture and the Evolutionary Process. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boyer, P. (2002). Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religions Thought. Basic Books, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bradbury, I. R., Laurel, B., Snelgrove, P. V. R., Bentzen, P., & Campana, S. E. (2008). Global patterns in marine dispersal estimates: The influence of geography, taxonomic category and life history. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275: 1803-1809.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Calvete, C. (2003). Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain. Journal of Parasitology 89: 445–451.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cashdan, E. (2001). Ethnic diversity and its environmental determinants: Effects on climate, pathogens, and habitat diversity. American Anthropology 103: 968-991.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Collard, I. F., & Foley, R. A. (2002). Latitudinal patterns and environmental determinants of recent human cultural diversity: Do humans follow biogeographical rules? Evolutionary Ecology Research 4: 371-383.

    Google Scholar 

  • Collard, M., Shennan, S. J., & Tehrani, J. J. (2006). Branching, blending, and the evolution of cultural similarities and differences among human populations. Evolution and Human Behavior 27: 169-184.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Connell, J. H. (1971). On the role of natural enemies in preventing competitive exclusion in some marine animals and in rain forest trees. In Dynamics of Numbers in Populations (Proceedings of the Advanced Study Institute, Osterbeek 1970), pp. 298-312. Centre for Agricultural Publication and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coyne, J. A., & Orr, H. A. 2004. Speciation. Sinauer Assoc., New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dawkins, R. (2006). The God Delusion. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diamond, J. (1998). Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. W. W. Norton and Co., New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diehl, S. R., & Bush, G. L. (1989). The role of habitat preference in adaptation and speciation. In Speciation and Its Consequences (eds. D. Otte & J. A. Endler), pp. 345-365. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dunn, R. R., Davies, T. J., Harris, N. C. et al. (2010). Global drivers of human pathogen richness and prevalence. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 27: 2587-2595.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Endler, J. A. (1977). Geographic Variation, Speciation, and Clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ethnologue, www.ethnologue.com

  • Ewald, P. W. (1994). Evolution of Infectious Disease. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Falconer, D. S., & Mackay, T. F. C. (1996). Introduction to Quantitative Genetics, fourth edition. Benjamin Cummings, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Feder, J. L. (1995). The effects of parasitoids on sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephridae). Ecology 76: 801-813.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Felsenstein, J. (1981). Skepticism towards Santa Rosalia, or why are there so few kinds of animals? Evolution 35: 124-138.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fincher, C. L., & Thornhill, R. (2008a). A parasite-driven wedge: Infectious diseases may explain language and other biodiversity. Oikos 117: 1289-1297.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fincher, C. L., & Thornhill, R. (2008b). Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biological Sciences 275: 2587-2594.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fincher, C. L., & Thornhill, R. (2012). Parasite-stress promotes in-group assortative sociality: The cases of strong family ties and heightened religiosity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35: 61-79.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fincher, C. L., Thornhill, R., Murray, D. R. et al. (2008). Pathogen prevalence predicts human cross-cultural variability in individualism/collectivism. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences 275: 1279-1285.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, R. A. (1930). The Genetic Theory of Natural Selection. Claredon Press, Oxford, U.K.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fitch, W. T. (2004). Kin selection and “mother tongues”: A neglected component in language evolution. In Evolution of Communication Systems: A Comparative Approach (eds. D. K. Oller & U. Griebel), pp. 275-296. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Freeland, W. J. (1979). Primate social groups as biological islands. Ecology 60: 719-728.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Freeland, W. J. (1983). Parasites and the coexistence of animal host species. American Naturalist 121: 223-236.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gaston, K. J. (2000). Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405: 220-227.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gilbert, G. S. (2005). Dimensions of plant disease in tropical forests. Biotic Interactions in the Tropics (eds. D. Burslem, M. Pinard, & S. Hartley), pp. 141-164. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillett, J. B. (1962). Pest pressure, an underestimated factor in evolution. Systematics Association Publication Number 4: 37-46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grim, B. J., & Finke, R. (2006). International religion indexes: Government regulation, government favoritism, and social regulation of religion. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion 2: 1-40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guernier, V., Hochberg, M. E., & Guégan, J. -F. (2004). Ecology drives the worldwide distribution of human diseases. PLoS Biology 2: 740-746.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haldane, J. B. S. (1949). Disease and evolution. Ricerca Scientifica Suppl. A 19: 68-76.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour, I & II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7: 1-52.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harmon, D. (1996). Saving nature’s legacy: Protecting and restoring biodiversity. Society and Natural Resources 9: 435-437.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harmon, D. (2002). In Light of Our Differences: How Diversity in Nature and Culture Makes Us Human. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D C, USA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hawkins, B. A., Field, R., Cornell, H. V. et al. (2003). Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology 84: 3105-3117.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hille Ris Lambers, J., Clark, J. S., & Beckage, B. (2002). Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Nature 417: 732-735.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hillebrand, H. (2004). On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. American Naturalist 163: 192-211.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hochberg, M. E., Sinervo, B., & Brown, S. P. (2003). Socially mediated speciation. Evolution 57: 154-158.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Irons, W. (2001). Religion as a hard-to-fake sign of commitment. Evolution and the Capacity for Commitment (ed. R. M. Nesse), pp.292-309. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaenike, J. (1990). Host specialization in phytophagous insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6: 365-397.

    Google Scholar 

  • Janzen, D. H. (1970). Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 104: 501-528.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jones, K. E., Patel, N. G., Levy, M. A. et al. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature 451: 990-993.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick, L. A. (1999). Toward an evolutionary psychology of religion and personality. Journal of Personality 67: 921–952.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirkpatrick. M. (1982). Sexual selection and the evolution of female choice. Evolution 36: 1-12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krasnov, B. R., Shenbrot, G. I., Khokhlova, I. S. et al. (2004). Relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity: Flea assemblages on small mammals. Journal of Biogeography 31: 1857–1866.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lande, R. (1981). Models of speciation by sexual selection on polygenic traits. Proceedings of the National Academy USA 78: 3721-3725.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Loehle, C. (1995). Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations. Ecology 76: 326-335.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Low, B. S. (1994). Pathogen severity cross-culturally. World Cultures 8: 24-34.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacArthur, R. H., & Connell, J. H. (1966). The Biology of Populations. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacDougall-Schackleton, E. A., Derryberry, E. P., & Hahn, T. P. (2002). Nonlocal male mountain white-crowned sparrows have lower paternity and higher parasite loads than males singing local dialect. Behavioral Ecology 13: 682-689.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mace, R., & Pagel, M. (1995). A latitudinal gradient in the density of human languages in North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 261: 117-121.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maffi, L. (2005). Linguistic, cultural, and biological diversity. Annual Review of Anthropology 29: 599-617.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martin, P. R., & McKay, J. K. (2004). Latitudinal variation in genetic divergence of populations and the potential for future speciation. Evolution 58: 938-945.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McElreath, R., Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. J. (2003). Shared norms and the evolution of ethnic markers. Current Anthropology 44: 122-129.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McNeill, W. H. (1976). Plagues and Peoples. Anchor Books, Harpswell, ME.

    Google Scholar 

  • McNeill, W. H. (1981). Migration patterns and infection in traditional societies. In Changing Disease Patterns and Human Behavior (eds. N. F. Stanley & R. A. Joske), pp. 27-36. Academic Press, Salt Lake, UT.

    Google Scholar 

  • McNeill, W. H. (1998). Plagues and Peoples. Anchor, Harpswell, ME.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, C. E. & Power, A. G. (2003). Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421: 625-627.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mittelbach, G. G., Schemske, D. W., Cornell, H. V. et al. (2007). Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: Speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecology Letters 10: 315-331.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Møller, A. P., Dufva, R., & Allander, K. (1993). Parasites and the evolution of host social behaviour. Advances in the Study of Behavior 22: 65-102.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Møller, A. P., Martin-Vivaldi, M., & Soler, J. J. (2004). Parasitism, host immune defense and dispersal. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 603-612.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Murdock, G. P. (1949). Social Structure. MacMillan, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Murray, D. R., Trudeau, R., & Schaller, M. (2011). On the origins of cultural differences in conformity: Four tests of the pathogen prevalence hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 37: 318-329.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D. (1999a). Linguistic Diversity. Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D. (1999b). Linguistic diversity of the Americas can be reconciled with a recent colonization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 96: 3325-3329.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D. (1999c). Language variation and the evolution of societies. In The Evolution of Culture (eds. R. Dunbar et al.), pp. 214-227. Rutgers University Press, Rutgers, NJ.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D. (2000). Linguistic fragmentation and the wealth of nations: The Fishman-Pool hypothesis re-examined. Economic Development and Cultural Change 48: 335-348.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nettle, D., & Dunbar, R. I. M. (1997). Social markers and the evolution of reciprocal exchange. Current Anthropology 38: 93-98.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn, C. L., Altizer, S., Jones, K. E. et al. (2003). Comparative tests of parasite species richness in primates. American Naturalist 162: 597-614.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn, C. L, Altizer, S., Sechrest, W. et al. (2004). Parasites and the evolutionary diversification of primate clades. American Naturalist 164: S90-S103.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nunn, C. L., Altizer, S. M., Sechrest, W. et al. (2005). Latitudinal gradients of parasite species richness in primates. Diversity and Distributions 413: 249-256.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Otte, D., & Ender, J. A., Eds. (1989). Speciation and Its Consequences. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pagel, M. D., May, R. M., & Collie, A. R. (1991). Ecological aspects of the geographical distribution and diversity of mammalian species. American Naturalist 137: 791-815.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pitchappan, R. M. (2002). Castes, migration, immunogenetics and infectious diseases in south India. Community Genetics 5: 157-161.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Price, P. W., Bouton, C. E., Gross, P. et al. (1980). Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11: 41-65.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Price, P. W., Westoby, M., Rice, B. et al. (1986). Parasite mediation in ecological interactions. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 17: 487-05.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reed, K. E., & Fleagle, J. G. (1995). Geographic and climatic control of primate diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 92: 7874-7876.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rice, W. R. (1984). Disruptive selection on habitat preference and the evolution of reproductive isolation: A simulation study. Evolution 38: 1251-1260.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Richerson, P. J., & Boyd, R. (1998). The Evolution of Human Ultra-sociality. In Indoctrinability, Ideology, and Warfare: Evolutionary Perspectives (eds. I. Eibl-Eibisfeldt & F. Salter), pp. 71-95. Berghahn Books, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salisbury, C. L., Seddon, N., Cooney, C. R. et al. (2012). The latitudinal gradient in dispersal constraints: Ecological specialization drives diversification in tropical birds. Ecology Letters 15: 847-855.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schaller, M., & Duncan, L. (2007). The behavioral immune system: Its evolution and social psychological implications. In Evolution and the Social Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and Social Cognition (eds. J. P. Forges, M. G. Haselton & W. Von Hippel), pp. 293-307. Psychology Press, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schemske, D. W. (2002). Ecology and evolutionary perspectives on the origins of tropical diversity. In Foundations of Tropical Forest Biology: Classical Papers with Commentaries (eds. R. L. Chazdon & T. C. Whitmore), pp. 163-173. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sih, A., Cote, J., Evans, M., Fogarty, S. et al. (2012). Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes. Ecological Letters 15: 278-289.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sosis, R. (2003). Why aren’t we all Hutterities? Costly signaling theory and religious behavior. Human Nature-An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective 14: 91-127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevens, G. C. (1989). The latitudinal gradient in geographical range: How so many species coexist in the tropics. American Naturalist 133: 240-256.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Summers, K., McKeon, S., Sellars, J. et al. (2003). Parasitic exploitation as an engine of diversity. Biological Reviews 78: 639-675.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sutherland, W. J. (2003). Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature 423: 276-279.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tauber, C. A., & Tauber, M. J. (1989). Sympatric speciation in insects: Perception and perspective. In Speciation and Its Consequences (eds. D. Otte & J. A. Endler), pp. 307-344. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thornhill, R., & Fincher, C. L. (2013). The parasite-driven-wedge model of parapatric speciation. Journal of Zoology 291: 23-33.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thornhill, R., Fincher, C. L., & Aran, D. (2009). Parasites, democratization, and the liberalization of values across contemporary countries. Biological Reviews 84: 113-131.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Torchin, M. E., Lafferty, K. D., Dobson, A. P. et al. (2003). Introduced species and their missing parasites. Nature 421: 628-630.

    CAS  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van den Berghe, P. L. (1981). The Ethnic Phenomenon. Elsevier, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vanhanen, T. (2003). Democratization: A Comparative Analysis of 170 Countries. Routledge, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weissing, F. J., Edelaar, P., & van Doorn, G. S. (2011). Adaptive speciation theory: A conceptual review. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 461-480.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • West-Eberhard, M. J. (1983). Sexual selection, social competition, and speciation. The Quarterly Review of Biology 58: 155-183.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Willig, M. R., Kaufman, D. M., & Stevens, R. D. (2003). Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: Pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 34: 273-309.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, D. S. (2002). Darwin’s Cathedral: Evolution, Religion, and the Nature of Society. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wolf, M., & Weissing, F. J. (2012). Animal personalities: Consequences for ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27: 452-461.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • World Factbook. (2007). http://www.cia.gov

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Thornhill, R., Fincher, C.L. (2014). Biodiversity and the Parasite-Driven Wedge. In: The Parasite-Stress Theory of Values and Sociality. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08040-6_13

Download citation