Skip to main content

Pultrusion Process of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites

  • Chapter
Manufacturing of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

Abstract

In this chapter a review of pultrusion process is presented. The process can be used to produce composites with reinforcements that are either synthetic fibres such as glass and carbon fibres or natural fibres like kenaf, jute, and hemp fibres. Selected previous work such as mechanical properties, processing parameters, and product development of pultruded natural fibre composites is reviewed. Special attention is paid on the development and properties of kenaf fibre composites fabricated from the pultrusion process.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abdalla FH, Saad AM, Khalid YA, Sapuan SM, Hamouda AMS, Sahari BB, Hamdan MM (2007) Design and fabrication of low cost filament winding machine. Mater Des 28:234–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Affzan MH, Akil HM, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA, Abd Rahman MA (2011) The effect of natural weathering exposure on the properties of pultruded jute fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. In: Proceedings of the 5th Asia-Europe symposium on processing and properties of reinforced polymers, 29 May–1 June, Dresden

    Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Leong WC, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA, Abd Rahman MA (2009a) Water absorption study on pultruded jute fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 69:1942–1948

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM, Mazuki AAM, Safiee S (2009b) Properties of pultruded jute and kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. In: NATO workshop “Textile Composites”, 18–21 May, Kiev

    Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM, Mazuki AAM, Safiee S (2009c) Study on properties of pultruded jute fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites for outdoor application. In: Proceedings of international conference on kenaf & allied fibres 2009 (ICKAF 2009), 1–3 December, Kuala Lumpur

    Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, De Rosa IM, Santulli C, Sarasini F (2010a) Flexural behaviour of pultruded jute/glass and kenaf/glass hybrid composites monitored using acoustic emission. Mater Sci Eng A527:2942–2950

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Cheng LW, Zamri MH, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM (2010b) Water absorption study on pultruded jute/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated hybrid composites. In: Proceedings of the 4th World Engineering Congress, 2–5 August, Kuching

    Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Sahnizam S, Ariffin ZAM, Bakar AA, Mazuki MAA (2010c) Study on dynamic mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced composites. In: Proceedings of the 7th Asian-Australian conference on composite materials, 15–18 November, Taipei

    Google Scholar 

  • Akil HM, Santulli C, Sarasini F, Tirillò J, Valente T (2014) Environmental effects on the mechanical behaviour of pultruded jute/glass fibre-reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 94:62–70

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Angelov I, Wiedmer S, Evstatiev M, Friedrich K, Mennig G (2007) Pultrusion of a flax/polypropylene yarn. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 38:1431–1438

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anwar UMK, Paridah MT, Hamdan H, Sapuan SM, Bakar ES (2009) Effect of pressing time on physical and mechanical properties of bamboo strip fibre reinforced phenolic composites. Ind Crop Prod 29:214–219

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baran I, Tutum CC, Hattel JH (2013) The effect of thermal contact resistance on the thermosetting pultrusion process. Compos B Eng 45:995–1000

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chandrashekhara K (2004) Energy efficient and sustainable building enclosures using bio-based materials. In: Proceedings of the NSF-PATH housing research workshop, Orlando, pp 187–191

    Google Scholar 

  • Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Yunus R (2008) Conceptual design of a polymer composite automotive bumper absorber. Mater Des 29:1447–1452

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • El-Shekeil YA, Sapuan SM, Abdan K, Zainudin ES (2012) Influence of fiber content on the mechanical and thermal properties of kenaf fiber reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites. Mater Des 40:299–303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fairuz AM, Sapuan SM, Zainudin ES, Jaafar CNA (2014a) Polymer composite manufacturing using a pultrusion process: a review. Am J Appl Sci 11:1798–1810

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fairuz AM, Sapuan SM, Zainudin ES, Aiza CN (2014b) Study of pultrusion process parameters. In: Proceedings of the postgraduate symposium on composites science and technology 2014 & 4th postgraduate seminar on natural fibre composites 2014, 28th January, Putrajaya, pp 116–120

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairuz AM, Sapuan SM, Zainudin ES, Jaafar CAN (2014c) Optimization of pultrusion process for kenaf fibre reinforced vinyl ester composites. In: the 3rd international conference on design and concurrent engineering (iDECON 2014), Melaka, 22–23 September

    Google Scholar 

  • Hambali A, Sapuan SM, Ismail N, Nukman Y (2009) Application of analytical hierarchy process in the design concept selection of automotive composite bumper beam during the conceptual design stage. Sci Res Essays 4:198–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Lackey E, Vaughan JG, Inamdar K, Hancock B (2008) Statistical characterization of pultruded composites with natural fiber reinforcements – part A: fabrication. J Nat Fibers 4:73–87

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang G, Garg A, Chandrashekhara K, Flanigan V, Kapila S (2005) Cure characterization of pultruded soy-based composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 24:1509–1520

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Malek FHA, Zainudin ES, Paridah MT, Jawaid M (2014) The effect of additives on bending strength of pultruded hybrid reinforced resol type phenolic composite. Appl Mech Mater 564:418–421

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin P (2013) Polyurethane pultrusion resin. Reinf Plast 57:13

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazuki AAM, Safiee S, Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM (2009a) Study of water absorption behavior on pultruded jute fiber reinforced polyester composites using dynamic mechanical analysis. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference of recent advances in materials, minerals & environment and the 2nd Asia symposium on material and processing, 1–3 June, Batu Ferringhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazuki AAM, Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM, Safiee S (2009b) Effect of water absorption on the dynamic mechanical properties of pultruded jute fibre reinforced polyester composites. In: Proceedings of the international conference on composites or nano engineering. Composites and reinforced plastics (ICCE 17), 26 July–1 August, Honolulu

    Google Scholar 

  • Mazuki AAM, Akil HM, Safiee S, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2011) Degradation of dynamic mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fibre reinforced composites after immersion in various solution. Compos B Eng 42:71–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Memon A, Nakai A (2013) The processing design of jute spun yarn/PLA braided composite by pultrusion molding. Adv Mech Eng 2013:1–8. doi:10.1155/2013/816513

    Google Scholar 

  • Nasir RM, Ghazali NM (2014) Tribological performance of paddy straw reinforced polypropylene (PSRP) and unidirectional glass-pultruded-kenaf (UGPK) composites. J Tribol 1:1–17

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen-Chung T, Friedrich K, Mennig G (2007) Processability of pultrusion using natural fiber and thermoplastic matrix. Res Lett Mater Sci 2007:1–6. doi:10.1155/2007/37123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nosbi N, Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM (2009) Influence of water absorption on mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference of recent advances in materials, minerals & environment and the 2nd Asia symposium on material and processing, 1–3 June, Batu Ferringhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Nosbi N, Akil HM, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2010) Degradation of compressive properties of pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced composites after immersion in various solutions. Mater Des 31:4960–4964

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nosbi N, Akil HM, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2011) Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of pultruded kenaf fibre reinforced polyester composites. Adv Compos Lett 20:21–26

    Google Scholar 

  • Omar MF, Akil HM, Ahmad ZA, Mazuki AAM, Yokoyama T (2010) Dynamic properties of pultruded natural fibre reinforced composites using split Hopkinson pressure bar technique. Mater Des 31:4209–4218

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Peng X, Fan M, Hartley J, Al-Zubaidy M (2012) Properties of natural fiber composites made by pultrusion process. J Compos Mater 46:237–246

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Safiee S, Mazuki AAM, Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM (2009a) Influence of water absorption on coefficient of the thermal expansion (CTE) of pultruded jute fiber reinforced polyester composite (PJFRPC). In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference of recent advances in materials, minerals& environment and the 2nd Asia symposium on material and processing, 1–3 June, Batu Ferringhi

    Google Scholar 

  • Safiee S, Akil HM, Mazuki AAM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM (2009b) Transverse and longitudinal measurements of pultruded kenaf fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester and their impact on interfacial residual stresses in composites. In: Proceedings of the international conference on kenaf & allied fibres 2009 (ICKAF 2009), 1–3 December, Kuala Lumpur

    Google Scholar 

  • Safiee S, Akil HM, Mazuki AAM, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2011) Properties of pultruded jute fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Adv Compos Mater 20:231–244

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sapuan SM, Abdalla HS (1998) A prototype knowledge-based system for the material selection of polymeric-based composites for automotive components. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 29A:731–742

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma D, Mccarty TA, Roux JA, Vaughan G (1998a) Fluid mechanics analysis of a two-dimensional pultrusion die inlet. Polym Eng Sci 38:1611–1622

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma D, Mccarty TA, Vaughan G, Roux JA (1998b) Pultrusion die pressure response to changes in die inlet geometry. Polym Compos 19:180–192

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh B, Gupta M (2005) Performance of pultruded jute fibre reinforced phenolic composites as building materials for door frame. J Polym Environ 13:127–137

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sundararaman S, Shabeer A, Garg A, Chandrashekhara K (2005) Impact characterization of pultruded soy-based composites. In: Proceedings of the SAMPE conference, 1–5 May, Long Beach, pp 1–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Van de Velde K, Kiekens P (2001) Thermoplastic pultrusion of natural fibre reinforced composites. Compos Struct 54:355–360

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vuppalapati RR, Menta VGK, Chandrashekhara K (2011) Synthesis and performance evaluation of soy-based aliphatic polyurethane nanocomposites for pultrusion. In: Proceedings of the SAMPE conference, 23–26 May, Long Beach

    Google Scholar 

  • Vuppalapati RR, Menta VGK, Chandrashekhara K, Schuman T (2014) Manufacturing and impact characterization of soy-based polyurethane pultruded composites. Polym Compos 35:1070–1077

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zamri MH, Akil HM, Shahidan HA, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2011) Pultruded natural fibre reinforced composites: preparation, properties and application. In: Proceedings of the nineteenth annual international conference on composites or nano engineering, 24–30 July, Shanghai

    Google Scholar 

  • Zamri MH, Akil HM, Bakar AA, Ishak ZAM, Leong WC (2012) Effect of water absorption on pultruded jute/glass fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites. J Compos Mater 46:51–61

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zamri MH, Akil HM, Ishak ZAM, Bakar AA (2014) Effect of different fiber loadings and sizes on pultruded kenaf fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Polym Compos. doi:10.1002/pc.23025, (in press)

  • Zhu J, Castle J, Berring N, Chandrashekhara K, Flanigan KV, Kapila S (2001) Mechanical characterization of soy-based pultruded composites. In: Proceedings of the CFA composites conference, Tampa, paper no. M-203, 3–6 October, pp 1–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu J, Chandrashekhara K, Flanigan KV, Kapila S (2004) Manufacturing and mechanical properties of soy-based composites using pultrusion. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 35:95–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

The researchers wish to thank Universiti Putra Malaysia for the funding support through the Research University Grant Scheme (RUGS 2–2012), project number: 05-02-12-1916RU.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. M. Sapuan .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Fairuz, A.M., Sapuan, S.M., Zainudin, E.S., Jaafar, C.N.A. (2015). Pultrusion Process of Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymer Composites. In: Salit, M., Jawaid, M., Yusoff, N., Hoque, M. (eds) Manufacturing of Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07944-8_11

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics