Piezoelectric Stiffening

Part of the Soft and Biological Matter book series (SOBIMA)


The electrical impedance between the front and the back electrode of the resonator affects the frequency shift by a mechanism called piezoelectric stiffening. If the front electrode is not grounded well (that is, if electric fringe fields permeate the sample), the sample’s electric and dielectric properties enter this impedance. They can be probed by switching between a grounded front electrode and a grounded back electrode. For the parallel plate, the formalism can be cast into a form, where the effects of a nonzero electric displacement are equivalent to a stress exerted onto the two resonator surface. Its influence on the frequency shift can be treated within the frame of the small load approximation (SLA).


  1. 1.
    Stevenson, A.C., Lowe, C.R.: Magnetic-acoustic-resonator sensors (MARS): a new sensing methodology. Sens. Actuators a-Phys. 72(1), 32–37 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thompson, M., Nisman, R., Hayward, G.L., Sindi, H., Stevenson, A.C., Lowe, C.R.: Surface energy and the response of transverse acoustic wave devices in liquids. Analyst 125(9), 1525–1528 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Driscoll, M.M., Healey, D.J.: Voltage-controlled crystal oscillators. IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. ED18(8), 528 (1971)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Neubig, B., Briese, W.: Das Grosse Quarzkochbuch. Franzis-Verlag, Feldkirchen (1997)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cady, W.G.: Piezoelectricity. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc, New York (1946)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ikeda, T.: Fundamental of Piezoelectricity. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1990)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tichý, J., Erhart, J., Kittinger, E., Prívratská, J.: Fundamentals of Piezoelectric Sensorics: Mechanical, Dielectric, and Thermodynamical Properties of Piezoelectric Materials. Springer (2010)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    Thurston, R.N.: Piezoelectrically excited vibrations. In: Truesdell, C. (ed.) Mechanics of Solids, vol. 4, p. 257. Springer, Heidelberg (1984)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Seh, H., Tuller, H.L., Fritze, H.: Defect properties of langasite and effects on BAW gas sensor performance at high temperatures. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 24(6), 1425–1429 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physical ChemistryClausthal University of TechnologyClausthal-ZellerfeldGermany

Personalised recommendations