# Stratified Layer Systems

## Abstract

Samples, which are homogeneous in the resonator plane, can be modeled as acoustic multilayers. The deformation pattern is a plane wave. Thin films exposed to air behave as predicted by Sauerbrey. For somewhat thicker films, there is a viscoelastic correction scaling as the square of the film’s mass. For films exposed to a liquid, the viscoelastic correction is independent of thickness. If the layer is soft, the correction can be substantial, even for molecularly thin films. Under certain conditions, the film’s elastic compliance, *J*_{f}′, can be calculation from the ratio of ΔΓ and (–Δ*f*). Thick films display a film resonance.

## 10.1 Viscoelastic Film in Air

*G*̃

_{f}in line 1. It occurs because \( {\hat{\upsigma }}_{S} \) is exerted by the resonator onto the sample. For a film in air one has \( \tilde{Z}_{bulk} \approx 0 \) and the reflectivity at the film-air interface is \( \tilde{r}_{f,bulk} = (\tilde{Z}_{f} - \tilde{Z}_{bulk} )/(\tilde{Z}_{f} + \tilde{Z}_{bulk} ) = 1 \). \( \hat{u}_{f}^{ + } \) then is related to \( \hat{u}_{f}^{ - } \) by

*n*, this amounts to

*Z*

_{f}for some common coating materials can be found in Ref. [4].

*m*

_{f}. (Strictly speaking, there are three parameters, which are \( Z_{f}^{{\prime }} ,Z_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \), and

*m*

_{f}.) Equation 10.1.4 misleadingly suggests that one might be able to separately determine the film thickness and the density of the film. Independent information is needed to separate thickness from mass.

*f*

*in*creases with increasing thickness. Δ

*f*can even turn positive, if the film resonance is sharp enough. The fact that the film resonance is a coupled resonance in the sense of Sect. 4.6.3 becomes clear upon approximating \( \tan (\tilde{k}_{f} d_{f} ) \) by \( (\tilde{k}_{f} d_{f} -\uppi/2)^{ - 1} \) in the vicinity of \( \tilde{k}_{f} d_{f} =\uppi/2 \):

*FR*denotes the

*F*ilm

*R*esonance. The film’s resonance frequency, ω

_{FR}, is given by the condition that \( {\tilde{\upomega }}_{FR} /\tilde{c}_{f} d_{f} = \tilde{k}_{f} d_{f} =\uppi/2 \). Equation 10.1.8 has the same structure as Eq. 4.6.24.

If the film has little internal dissipation, the film resonance amounts to a sharp peak in a plot ΔΓ versus *d*_{f}. Note, however, that the SLA does not apply under these conditions. Δ*f* and ΔΓ plotted versus *n* only form a resonance curve of their own, if the damping factor of the coupled resonance is large enough (cf. Eq. 4.6.26). For samples with low internal dissipation, one has two separate modes around \( k_{f} d_{f} =\uppi/2 \) [7]. Two separate modes have been seen with Langmuir-Blodgett films, sequentially deposited on the resonator surface [8]. One also can find the resonance frequency to discontinuously jump upwards in swelling experiments. In this case the instrument at some point looses the lower branch because the respective resonance becomes to weak. It then searches a resonance and finds the upper branch. Only sufficiently viscous films follow Eq. 10.1.4 and Fig. 10.2.

Figure 10.3b shows the same data as Fig. 10.2, plotted in polar form (ΔΓ versus Δ*f*). Clearly there is a spiral, characteristic for the damped coupled resonance. Contrasting to the case of a sphere on a plate (Sects. 4.6.3 and 11.4), the spiral can make more than one turn. The subsequent turns are the higher overtones of the film resonance. An experimental example, which follows Eq. 10.1.4 particularly well, is shown in Fig. 10.3c [9]. Salomaki and Kankare display their results in polar form and they convert Δ*f* and ΔΓ to \( \tilde{Z}_{L} \) using Eq. 4.6.1. The authors use the metric Rayl as the unit of the impedance (cf. Sect. 4.2). The metric Rayl is equal to 1 kg m^{−2} s^{−1}. The agreement between Fig. 10.3c and the model is quite remarkable. Figure 10.3c is a rare example, where the higher overtones of the film resonance are seen. The spiral makes 1.5 turns. (The “higher film resonances” have \( k_{f} d_{f} = m\;\uppi/2 \) with *m* an odd integer).

*n*= 5 at 25 MHz) reaches the film resonance first because it has the shortest wavelength. The third overtone (15 MH) follows later. For the fundamental, the film resonance is barely reached.

- (a)
Revisiting the approximations inherent to the SLA, one finds that the term \( (\tilde{J}_{f} /(\uprho_{f} )Z_{q}^{2} \) needs to be replaced by \( (\tilde{J}_{f} /(\uprho_{f} )Z_{q}^{2} - 1 \):

*Z*

_{q}.

- (b)
The parameter

*m*_{q}in the denominator is half the plate’s mass within the parallel plate model, but it turns into the “modal mass” when accounting for deviations from that model (Sect. 6.1.4). The true modal mass as a function of overtone order can be determined with thin rigid films. An overtone dependence of Δ*f*/*n*can only be attributed to viscoelastic effects after the modal mass has been corrected for. - (c)
A dependence of Δ

*f*/*n*on*n*^{2}can also result from electrode effects. See the text around Eq. 6.2.15 for details.

For small *m*_{f}/*m*_{q} (neglecting the second term in square brackets), Eq. 10.1.10 reduces to the Sauerbrey equation. For slightly thicker films, there is a viscoelastic correction proportional to *n*^{2}, \( m_{f}^{2} \), and \( \tilde{J}_{f} \). Importantly, the viscoelastic contribution is large for soft films (with large \( \tilde{J}_{f} \)). The non-gravimetric QCM plays out its strength when the sample is softer than quartz. Viscoelastic effects disappear in the thin-film limit because the film’s own inertia is the only source of shear stress; the sample is not clamped from the other side. It is difficult to determine the softness of a film thinner than about 10 nm and it is quite impossible to determine the softness of a monomolecular adsorbate. This contrasts to the situation in liquids. A liquid exerts a stress onto the film from the outer edge and thereby makes viscoelastic effects visible even for adsorbed monolayers.

*n*

^{2}along the

*x*-axis and the normalized shifts of frequency and half-bandwidth (Δ

*f*/

*n*) and ΔΓ/

*n*) along

*y*. An example is shown in Fig. 10.5. If \( \tilde{J}(\upomega) \) were constant, straight lines would result and the compliances (elastic and viscous) would be proportional to the slopes. However, \( \tilde{J}(\upomega) \) usually does depend on frequency. For

*J*′′ this is not a problem because \( J^{\prime\prime}(\upomega) \) can be explicitly derived from the ΔΓ/

*n*. However, there is a problem for the shear compliance because one needs to extrapolate Δ

*f*(

*n*) to

*n*= 0 in order to determine the mass,

*m*

_{f}. An approximate law for \( J^{\prime}(\upomega) \) must be assumed in order to do the extrapolation. Typical would be a power law as in Eq. 10.4.1.

*m*

_{f}can be estimated from the Sauerbrey equation (\( m_{f} \approx - m_{q}\Delta f/f_{r} \)), resulting in

## 10.2 Viscoelastic Film in a Liquid

*m*

_{f}.

*d*

_{f}, one finds

*in*creases the resonance frequency. It decreases the apparent Sauerbrey mass (the mass obtained when naively analyzing experimental data with the Sauerbrey equation).

*f*/

*n*versus

*n*slopes upwards. The larger the slope, the larger is the sample’s viscous (!) compliance. Note: When a film is immersed in a liquid, a finite

*elastic*compliance mostly affects the

*bandwidth*, while a finite

*viscous*compliance mostly affects the

*frequency*. It is the other way round in air.

Contrasting to the dry state, the viscoelastic correction is independent of film thickness in a liquid environment. For films in air the viscoelastic correction scales as the square of the mass (Eq. 10.1.9) because the film surface is stress-free in air. The film only shears under its own weight. This is different in liquids because the liquids exerts a stress onto the film. The viscoelastic correction may be sizeable, even for molecularly thin films.

Equation 10.2.6 predicts –Δ*f* to increase with overtone order, as shown in Fig. 10.7. In experiment, one can also find –Δ*f* decreasing with *n*. The reasons are unclear; roughness may play a role.

*z*) was assumed to be about constant and equal to ρ

_{liq}. Equation 10.2.7 will be central importance in Sects. 10.6 and 16.2.

The Voigt model from Ref. [18] is equivalent to the acoustic multilayer formalism. For the proof see the appendix of Ref. [13]. Although not readily apparent, the “Voigt model” also makes use of the SLA. At the end of the derivation, Voinova et al. invoke an approximation from a previous paper of the group (Ref. [19]), which essentially is the SLA.

The “missing-mass effect” from Ref. [15] is equivalent to the viscoelastic correction in Eq. 10.2.6 (Ref. [11]).

## 10.3 Equivalent Mass and Equivalent Thickness

- (a)
The QCM always measures a film’s areal mass density, never its geometric thickness. The conversion from areal mass density to thickness requires the physical density as independent input.

- (b)
One can account for the viscoelastic correction by fitting the experimental sets of {Δ

*f*(*n*)}and {ΔΓ(*n*)}, with in Eq. 10.2.6. The parameter*m*_{f}then is one of the fit parameters. The fits are not trivial though, there sometimes is a question with regard to uniqueness. - (c)
If full-fledged fitting shall be avoided, one can extrapolate the function Δ

*f*(*n*) to*n*= 0. At*n*= 0, the viscoelastic correction disappears. - (d)
If the correction factor is significantly different from unity, it also affects the bandwidth and makes −Δ

*f*/*n*depend on overtone order. If, conversely, such effects are absent (if \( \Delta \Gamma \ll ( -\Delta f) \, {\rm{and}} \, \Delta f/n \approx const) \), one may assume \( 1 - \left| {\tilde{Z}_{liq}^{2} /\tilde{Z}_{f}^{2} } \right| \approx 1 \). The Sauerbrey equation then is trustworthy. - (e)
If the viscoelastic correction is insignificant as discussed in (c), this does not imply that the film would not be swollen in the ambient liquid. It only implies that the (swollen) film is much more rigid than the ambient liquid. The amount of swelling can only be inferred from the comparison of wet and dry thickness. QCM data taken on the wet sample alone do not allow to infer the degree of swelling (cf. Sect. 16.2).

- (f)
Soft samples often have a fuzzy interface with the ambient liquid. Fuzzy interfaces usually are soft interfaces. They will induce significant viscoelastic effects (ΔΓ > 0, Δ

*f*/*n*a function of*n*). In the absence of such effects, one may conclude that the border of the film with the liquid is sharp. - (g)
The degree of swelling of a film in aqueous solution can be inferred from H

_{2}O/D_{2}O exchange experiments, see Ref. [20].

## 10.4 Determination of Viscoelastic Constants

In principle, both \( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) can be extracted from the *n*-dependence of Δ*f* and ΔΓ. A few difficulties must be kept in mind, though. Firstly and importantly, \( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) themselves depend on *n*. Secondly, \( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) cannot be derived explicitly because the mass is not a priori known. Finally, films in a liquid environment can show an overtone dependence of Δ*f*/*n* because of roughness (Sects. 9.5 and 12.2). (And of course there is always the possibility of compressional waves having an influence.)

*ref*” here denotes a frequency somewhere in the middle of the frequency range of the QCM (as opposed to a reference state of the crystal without a sample). Power laws analogous to Eq. 10.4.1 can be formulated for other choices of viscoelastic parameters (\( G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( G_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) or \( G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( \upeta_{f}^{{\prime }} \)). Unfortunately, power laws in \( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) do not turn into power laws in \( G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( G_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) when transformed with Eq. 3.7.4. A set of power laws in \( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) therefore is not strictly equivalent to a similar set in \( G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( G_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \).

There are limits on \( \upbeta^{{\prime }} \) and \( \upbeta^{{\prime \prime }} \). If expressing viscoelasticity in terms of compliance (\( J_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( J_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \) as in Eq. 10.4.1), one has \( - 2 <\upbeta^{{\prime }} < 0 \) and \( - 1 <\upbeta^{{\prime \prime }} < 1 \). If moduli are used (\( G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( G_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} \)), one has \( 0 <\upbeta^{{\prime }} < 2 \) and \( - 1 <\upbeta^{{\prime \prime }} < 1 \). Users of the QCM-D often express viscoelasticity in terms of \( \upmu = G_{f}^{{\prime }} \) and \( \upeta = G_{f}^{{\prime \prime }} /\upomega \). The power law exponent for η is between −2 and 0.

## 10.5 The ΔΓ/Δf-Ratio and a Film’s Elastic Compliance

*f*) (the “ΔΓ/Δ

*f*-ratio”). The ΔΓ/Δ

*f*-ratio is an intrinsic property of the adsorbed material. It is related to the material’s density and viscoelastic constants as

*f*-ratio mostly is a measure of a film’s

*softness*. To see this more quantitatively, we make further approximations. Assume the liquid to be Newtonian. The shear-wave impedance of this liquid is \( \tilde{Z}_{liq} = ({\text{i}}\upomega \uprho _{liq}\upeta_{liq} )^{1/2} \), which leads to

_{f}by ρ

_{liq}yields

The Gizeli group has carried this concept even further [21, 22]. They take the ratio Δ*D*/(–Δ*F*) (*D* the dissipation factor and Δ*F* = Δ*f*/*n* the normalized frequency shift) and call this parameter the “acoustic ratio”. While the acoustic ratio clearly is equivalent to what is called ΔΓ/Δ*f* above, the meaning given to it by the Gizeli group is different. These workers attached DNA strands to the QCM surface. They find that acoustic ratio to be constant up to a certain limit in coverage. From the fact that Δ*D*/(–Δ*F*) is independent of coverage, they conclude that the acoustic ratio is a property of the *molecules* under investigation (as opposed to a property of the layer). Evidently, this argument only holds in the range where Δ*D*/(−Δ*F*) is indeed independent of Δ*F*. The acoustic ratio was found to depend on the length of the DNA strands adsorbed. It increased with increasing length. In the discussion, the group draws an analogy to the intrinsic viscosity of a dilute solution, [η], which is defined as [η] = (η−η_{0})/(η_{0}*c*), to be evaluated in the limit of low *c*. η_{0} is the viscosity of the pure solvent, *c* is the concentration of the solute. In the limit of low concentration, intermolecular interactions do not affect the viscosity and [η] is a property of the solute/solvent pair.

From a mathematical point of view, it is not necessarily clear that the ΔΓ/Δ

*f*-ratio should be proportional to the intrinsic viscosity of the adsorbate molecules. The Gizeli group has established experimentally that there is a correlation between the ΔΓ/Δ*f*-ratio and the intrinsic viscosity of the same molecules in the bulk. In principle, the ΔΓ/Δ*f*-ratio might relate to other molecular parameters, as well. That would not invalidate the argument as such. Whatever the parameter is, it would still be a property of the solute/solvent pair.A ΔΓ/Δ

*f*-ratio independent of −Δ*f*is not always observed. Figure 12.8 shows counter examples. The ΔΓ/Δ*f*-ratio only is a property of the molecules involved, as long as it is independent of coverage.

## 10.6 Multilayers and Continuous Viscoelastic Profiles

*liq*denote the two films and the liquid, respectively. The author has made a software package for the analysis of multilayers available on the web [23]. This software calculates Δ

*f*for up to 4 layers. Of course the uniqueness of the fit must be checked carefully.

*z*.

Mathematica code implementing this method is provided in Sect. 10.8. (This section also discusses the initial conditions). The input to such a model consists of two steps. First, an assumption is needed on the dependence of the polymer volume fraction on distance, φ(*z*), where φ is the polymer volume fraction. More difficult is the question of how the shear modulus should depend on φ. Remember: The model needs the shear modulus at MHz frequencies. The low frequency shear modulus might be determined with conventional rheology on bulk solutions of the respective material, but such low-frequency moduli are of little help. Input from polymer physics is needed. What is written down in Sect. 10.8 is just a guess.

*z*) ≈ ρ

_{liq}, one finds

*app*denotes the

*app*arent thickness. Based on the ΔΓ/Δ

*f*-ratio (Sect. 10.5), one can define an apparent elastic compliance as \( J^{\prime}_{app} =\Delta \Gamma /( -\Delta f)/(\upomega \upeta _{liq} ) \). The apparent elastic compliance is related to the viscoelastic profile as

## 10.7 Slip

Slippage at an interface between a solid and a simple liquid has for a long time been regarded as a misunderstanding. As the textbooks explain, the solid-liquid interface obeys a no-slip condition because the attraction between the small molecules forming the liquid phase and a wall is at least as strong as the mutual attraction between the small molecules [25, 26]. At first glance, there appears to be little reason, why a material should flow more easily close to a wall than in the bulk. On the contrary: Adsorption of molecules to the surface should enhance the local viscosity. There are many examples of solidified layers of liquid molecules next to a solid surface. The opposite phenomenon, a layer of highly mobile molecules next to a wall, was long considered an exception, if not a phantom.

Today there is solid experimental evidence for slip even in simple liquids [27, 28, 29, 30, 31]. Different mechanisms have been put forward. For instance, nanobubbles can facilitate a flow. The hydrophobic interaction can also reduce the density of water near a hydrophobic surface, thereby reducing the local viscosity [29].

In passing we mention two other meanings of slip, different from what is discussed below. Firstly, slip can mean “*solid*-*like sliding*” in the sense of friction and tribology [32]. Some aspects of tribology with relevance to the QCM are discussed in Sect. 12.1. Secondly, slip can denote interfacial shear-thinning in *complex fluids* [33, 34]. A well-known example is tooth paste. When tooth paste is squeezed out of the tube, it experiences plug flow, meaning that bulk of the material remains undeformed and the shear gradient is concentrated close to the wall. In tooth paste, large stress causes structural transformations, which lower the viscosity. On start-up, the pressure-driven flow has a parabolic profile. Soon afterwards, the structural transformation sets in close to the wall, where the shear gradient is largest. There is positive feed-back, eventually leading to strong shear-thinning at the wall and movement without internal shear everywhere else. MHz shear waves are not suited to study shear-thinning in complex fluids. Firstly, the structural transformations are too slow to be induced by MHz excitation. Also, the fluids giving rise to plug flow all are viscous to the extent that they overdamp the resonator’s vibration. Further, the stress required to induce shear-thinning is too large to be exerted by a QCM.

In simple liquids, the layer of anomalous viscosity (be it decreased or increased) is few nanometers thick, at most. Only molecules in the vicinity of the surface feel the effect, which the surface has on the material’s density and dynamics. Unless the viscosity in the denominator of Eq. 10.7.1 is close to zero, the slip length is a few nanometers, as well, and the measurement of the slip length by conventional macroscopic techniques is difficult. As has been pointed out by numerous authors, MHz shear waves can be exploited to this end [39, 40, 41, 42, 43]. Their penetration depth is around 100 nm. If the slip length is—for instance—1 % of the penetration depth, slip is readily detected.

The continuum model of slip in simple liquids amounts to a layer of decreased viscosity near a surface. The slip length, *b*_{sl}, is defined by extrapolating the linear portion of the flow profile, v(*z*), to the plane of zero shear (Fig. 10.8) [44]. Again, the near-surface viscosity may be decreased or increased. It can be increased by a layer of adsorbed molecules. The distance between the surface and the plane of zero shear then (by definition) is the hydrodynamic thickness of the respective layer [45]. The slip length can be viewed as an apparent negative hydrodynamic thickness.

*d*

_{SL}is the thickness of the layer with reduced viscosity (the

*S*lipping

*L*ayer, solid line in Fig. 10.8) and η

_{SL}is the viscosity inside this layer. Since 10.7.1 is linear in

*d*

_{SL}, it also holds for continuous profiles, η(

*z*), (dashed line in Fig. 10.8) in an integral sense:

*z*) ≈ ρ

_{liq}), one has

*b*

_{sl,ac}, given as

Equations 10.7.2 and 10.7.4 ignore roughness and heterogeneities [47]. Bubbles and nanobubbles do constitute such heterogeneities. Nanobubbles do not necessarily induce slip. Since nanobubbles constitute a laterally structured sample, we defer their discussion to Sect. 12.4.

## 10.8 Appendix: Modeling Viscoelastic Profiles Using the Wave Equation

In Sect. 10.6 it was stated that the complex frequency shift induced by a sample with continuous \( \tilde{G}(z) \) and ρ(*z*) can be found by solving the wave equation numerically. The calculation amounts to a few lines of code in Mathematica and we provide an example below.

The polymer volume fraction was chosen as φ = φ

_{0}1/2(1 − tanh(*z*−*z*_{i})/*w*)). φ_{0}is the polymer volume fraction at*z*= −∞,*z*_{i}is the point of inflection, and*w*is the width of the interface.The density, ρ, was assumed to be constant and equal to 1 g/cm

^{3}.The shear modulus was assumed to obey a Maxwell model, meaning that \( \tilde{G} \) is given as \( \tilde{G} = {\text{i}}\upomega \upeta _{liq} + G_{\infty } {\text{i}}\upomega \uptau /(1 + {\text{i}}\upomega \uptau ) \).

*G*_{∞}is the elastic shear modulus at infinite frequency and τ is a relaxation time. τ was made to depend on polymer volume fraction as τ = 0.1 ns × 10^{3}φ/φ_{0}. At*z*= ∞, the shear modulus equals the (complex) shear modulus of the bulk liquid.

There is subtlety with regard to the initial condition of the problem, which is the amplitude at infinity (where “infinity” is some value *z*_{max} far outside the region of interest). Mathematica integrates the wave equation from *z*_{max} down to the resonator surface. Since the wave equation contains the second derivative, initial conditions are needed for both \( \hat{u} \) and \( {\text{d}}\hat{u}/{\text{d}}z \) at *z* = *z*_{max}. It turns out that all initial conditions lead to the same frequency shift. Consider \( \hat{u}(z_{\hbox{max} } ) \) first. Because what is analyzed eventually is the ratio of stress to velocity, \( \hat{\upsigma }_{S} /\hat{\rm{v}}_{S} \), one is free to pick the amplitude \( \hat{u}(z_{\hbox{max} } ) \) arbitrarily. Multiplying \( \hat{u}(z) \) by some complex number does not change the ratio of \( \hat{\upsigma }_{S} /\hat{v}_{S} \). Somewhat surprisingly, the value of the first derivative of \( \hat{u}(z) \) at *z*_{max} has no influence on \( \hat{\upsigma }_{S} /\hat{v}_{S} \), either. Some value must be chosen in order to get Mathematica running, but all choices lead to the same \( \Delta \tilde{f} \). While one might think that \( {\text{d}}\hat{u}(z)/{\text{d}}z \) must be chosen as \( - {\text{i}}k\hat{u}(z) \), any other choice is fine as well. This is so because any other choice will represent a superposition of two waves decaying towards positive and negative *z*. The second solution (decaying towards negative *z*) is unphysical because it grows to infinity far away from the resonator surface. However, the presence of this unphysical contribution is no problem if *z*_{max} is large enough. If *z*_{max} is far away from the surface, the unphysical part of the solution decays to zero at the resonator surface and has no influence on \( \Delta \tilde{f} \).

^{1}.

## Footnotes

- 1.
A Mathematica file with the content given below is available for download at http://www.pc.tu-clausthal.de/en/forschung/ak-johannsmann/qcm-modellierung/

## Notes

### Glossary

**Variable**

**Definition (Comments)**

*app*

As an index: *app*arent

*b*

_{sl}

Slip length

*b*

_{sl,ac}

Acoustic slip length (Eq. 10.7.5)

*c̃*

Speed of (shear) sound (\( \tilde{c} = (\tilde{G}/\uprho )^{1/2} \))

*d*

Thickness of a layer

*d*

_{q}

Thickness of the resonator (\( d_{q} = m_{q} /\uprho_{q} = Z_{q} /(2\uprho_{q} f_{0} ) \))

*f*

Frequency

*f*

As an index: *f*ilm

*f*

_{0}

Resonance frequency at the fundamental (*f*_{0} = *Z*_{q}/(2*m*_{q}) = *Z*_{q}/(2ρ_{q}*d*_{q}))

*FR*

As an index: *F*ilm *R*esonance

Shear modulus

*G*

_{∞}

Limiting storage modulus at high frequency

Shear compliance (\( \tilde{J} = 1/\tilde{G} \))

Wavenumber (\( \tilde{k} = \upomega /\tilde{c} \))

*liq*

As an index: *liq*uid

*m*

Mass per unit area

*m*

_{q}

Mass per unit area of the resonator (\( m_{q} = \uprho_{q} d_{q} = Z_{q} /(2f_{0} ) \))

*n*

Overtone order

Amplitude reflection coefficient (reflectivity, for short)

*ref*

As an index: *ref*erence state of a crystal in the absence of a load or reference frequency for viscoelastic constants (Eq. 10.4.1)

*S*

As an index: *S*urface

*SL*

As an index: *S*lipping Layer

*t*

Time

(Tangential) displacement

Velocity

*w*

Width of a fuzzy interface (Sect. 10.8)

*z*

_{i}

Point of inflection of a segment density profile (Sect. 10.8)

Shear-wave impedance of a liquid (\( \tilde{Z}_{liq} = (\text{i}\upomega \uprho_{liq} \upeta_{liq} )^{1/2} \))

Load impedance

*z*

_{max}

Limit of integration range (Sect. 10.8)

*Z*

_{q}

Acoustic wave impedance of AT-cut quartz (*Z*_{q} = 8.8 × 10^{6} kg m^{−2} s^{−1})

Power law exponents (Eq. 10.4.1)

Imaginary part of a resonance frequency

Penetration depth of a shear wave (Newtonian liquids: \( \updelta = (2\upeta_{liq} /(\uprho_{liq} \upomega ))^{1/2} \))

As a prefix: A shift induced by the presence of the sample

Polymer volume fraction (Sect. 10.8)

Viscosity \( \tilde{\upeta } = \tilde{G}/({\text{i}}\upomega ) \)

Density

(Tangential) stress

Tangential stress at the surface, also: “traction”

Relaxation time

Angular frequency

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