A Task Analytic Process to Define Future Concepts in Aviation
A necessary step when developing next generation systems is to understand the tasks that operators will perform. One NextGen concept under evaluation termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO) is designed to improve the efficiency of airline operations. This SPO concept includes a Pilot on Board (PoB), a Ground Station Operator (GSO), and automation. A number of procedural changes are likely to result when such changes in roles and responsibilities are undertaken. Automation is expected to relieve the PoB and GSO of some tasks (e.g. radio frequency changes, loading expected arrival information). A major difference in the SPO environment is the shift to communication-cued crosschecks (verbal / automated) rather than movement-cued crosschecks that occur in a shared cockpit. The current article highlights a task analytic process of the roles and responsibilities between a PoB, an approach-phase GSO, and automation.
KeywordsTask analysis concept evaluation single pilot operations
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Kirwan, B., Ainsworth, L.K.: A Guide To Task Analysis. Taylor & Francis, London (1992)Google Scholar
- 2.Diaper, D.: Task Analysis for Human-Computer Interaction. Ellis Horwood Limited, England (1989)Google Scholar
- 3.Zachary, W., Ryder, J., Hicinbothom, J.: Cognitive Task Analysis & Modeling Of Decision Making In Complex Environments. In: Salas, E., Cannon-Bowers, J. (eds.) Making Decisions Under Stress. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (1998)Google Scholar
- 4.Klein, G.: Cognitive Task Analysis Of Teams. In: Schraagen, Chipman, Shalin (eds.) Cognitive Task Analysis, pp. 417–430. Lawrence Erlbaum Mahwah, NJ (2000)Google Scholar
- 5.Gore, B.F.: Chapter 32: Human Performance: Evaluating The Cognitive Aspects. In: Duffy, V. (ed.) Handbook of Digital Human Modeling, pp. 32-1-32-18. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton (2008)Google Scholar
- 6.Johnson, W., Lachter, J., Feary, M., Comerford, D., Battiste, V., Mogford, R.: Task Allocation For Single Pilot Operations: A Role For The Ground. In: HCI Aero 2012 – International Conference on Human-Computer International Aerospace, Belgium, Brussels, pp. 12–14 (September 2012)Google Scholar
- 7.Schutte, P.C., Trujillo, A.C.: Flight Crew Task Management In Non-Normal Situations. In: Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, pp. 244–248. HFES, Santa Monica (1996)Google Scholar
- 8.Gore, B. F., Hooey, B. L., Mahlstedt, E. A., & Foyle, D. C. Evaluating NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations concepts with validated human performance models. Scenario Development and Results (NASA TM-2013-216503). NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field (2013)Google Scholar
- 9.Gore, B.F., Hooey, B.L., Haan, N.J., Socash, C., Mahlstedt, E.A., Foyle, D.C.: A validated set of MIDAS v5 task network model scenarios to evaluate NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations concepts (HCSL 13-03). NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field (2013)Google Scholar
- 10.Gore, B.F., Hooey, B.L., Haan, N., Bakowski, D.L., Mahlsted, E.: A methodical approach for developing valid human performance models of flight deck operations. Paper presented at the 14th Annual HCI International, Orlando, FL, July 9–July 14 (2011)Google Scholar
- 11.Wolter, C.A., Gore, B.F.: ASP/CTD/SPO Task Summary Report: Single Pilot Operations (SPO) ConOps-related gaps and research issues identified by analysis of SPO Pilot and Controller tasks, technologies and procedures. HCSL Technical Report (HCSL-13-07) Human Centered Systems Laboratory (HCSL). NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field (2013)Google Scholar