China transformed from a peasant society to the world’s second largest global economy within a single generation. With the opening of the economy and market reforms, entrepreneurial spirit has flourished: State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs) have been privatized, millions of Chinese have started new ventures, and China has taken advantage of its large labor force through low-cost manufacturing. But the PRC has come to a crucial juncture in its economic and social development. The current growth model is unbalanced towards exports and not sustainable in an environment of rising input costs. Thus, China’s growth in the next decade will depend on the country’s ability to move to the next stage of production through innovation and enhanced productivity and higher consumption through social stability (Fig. 1.1).