Ergonomic Evaluation of Manual Force Levels of the Elderly in the Handling of Products: An Analysis Using Virtual Reality

  • Rafaela Q. Barros
  • Marcelo Márico Soares
  • Maria Goretti Fernandes
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8520)


Data from the World Health Organization - WHO [1] estimated that from 2000 to 2050, there will be a threefold increase in the population over 60-year-old population, which will rise to nearly 2 billion. It is important to designer understand the aging process and its peculiarities, such as those issues that affect cognitive issues and physical skills, thus enabling the understanding of products targeted on elderly people. The Virtual Reality via using haptic gloves to simulate everyday activities (EDAs) in a virtual environment. Thus, it is intended that this technology will enable the study of the measurement of forces applied in performing tasks. Data on measuring the levels of manual strength in the virtual environment were not found in the literature. Based on the data obtained in this review of the literature, the intention is to simulate elderly people´s manual activities with a view to quantifying levels of force.


Virtual Reality Manual strength and ergonomics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    WHO – WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION. Questions and Answers. What are the public health implications of global ageing? (2011),
  2. 2.
    Chaumon, M.E.B., Ciobanu, R.O.: Les Nouvelles Technologies au Service des PersonnesAgées: Entre Promesseset Interrogations – Une Revue de Questions. Psychologiefrançaise 54, 271–285 (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Razza, B.M., Paschoarelli, M.C.: Avaliação de forças de preensão digital: parâmetrospara o design ergonômico de produtos. In: Pachoarelli, L.C., Menezes, M.S. (eds.) Design e Ergonomia: Aspectos Tecnológicos, p. 279. Editora UNESP. Cultura Acadêmica, São Paulo (2009) ISBN 978-85-7983-001-3Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parente, M.A.M.P.: Cognição e envelhecimento. Artmed, Porto Alegre (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Voorbij, A.I.M., Steenbekkers, L.P.A.: The twisting force of aged consumers when opening a jar. Applied Ergonomics, 105–109 (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Iida, I.: Ergonomia: Projeto e produção. E. Blucher, São Paulo (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pheasant, S.: Bodyspace: Anthropometry, ergonomics and the design of work, 3rd edn. Taylor & Francis, London (2005)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mital, A., Kumar, S.: Human muscle strength definitions, measurement, and usage: Part I – Guidelines for the practitioner. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 22, 101–121 (1998); Human Muscle Strength Definitions, Measurement, and Usage: Part II – The Scientific Basis (Knowledge Base) for the GuideGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Santos, F.A.N.V., Sala, S.F.: Ergonomia e terceira idade: aspectos relevantes para o projeto de produtos para pessoas idosas. In: Abergo 2010 –Ulaergo2010/ XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Ergonomia e III Congresso Latino de Ergonomia. Rio de Janeiro. Anais do Abergo 2010 –Ulaergo2010 / XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Ergonomia e III Congresso Latino de Ergonomia (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Smith, S., Norris, B., Peebles, L.: OlderAdultdata: The Handbook of Measurements and Capabilities of the Older Adult. Nottingham. p. 4-9 (1998)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brasil. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, Departamento de Atenção Básica. Envelhecimento e saúde da pessoa idosa. Brasília (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Duarte, Y.A.O., Andrade, C.L., Lebrão, M.L.O.: Índex de Katz na avaliação da funcionalidade dos idosos. Revista Escola Enfermagem. 41(2), 317–325 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Campos, L.F.A., Paschoarelli, L.C., Silva, D.C., Muniz, F.J., Lanutti, J.N.L., Silva, J.C.P.: Análise física da força manual de torque: Contribuições para para o design de ferramentas manuais. In: XVI Congresso Brasileiro de Ergonomia, 2 a 6 de Agosto de 2010, ABERGO, Rio de Janeiro (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Falcão, C.S., Soares, M.M.: Usability of Consumer Products: an analyses of concepts methods and applications. Estudos em Design (online). Rio de Janeiro 21(2), 1–26 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mathiowetz, V., Rennells, C., Donahoc, L.: Effect of elbow position on grip and key pinch strength. The Journal of Hand Surgery, 694–697 (1985)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Voorbij, A.I.M., Steenbekkers, L.P.A.: The twisting force of aged consumers when opening a jar. Applied Ergonomics, 105–109 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Voorbij, A.I.M., Steenbekkers, L.P.A., Ramos, I.R., Toniolo, J., Cendoroglo, M., Garcia, J., Paola, C., Santos, F.: Two-year follow-up study of elderly residents in S. Methodology and preliminary. Revista de SaúdePública 32(63), 397–407 (1998)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Konin, J.: Cinesiologiaprática para fisioterapeutas, 1st edn. Guanabara Koogan, Rio de Janeiro (2006)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cushman, W.H., Rosenberg, D.J.: Human factors in product design. Elsevier, New York (1991)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yoxall, A., Janson, R., Bradbury, S.R., Langley, J., Wearn, J., Hayes, S.: Openability: Products design limits for consumer packaging Technology and Science. In: Khalid, H., Hedge, A., Tareq, Z. (eds.) Advances in Ergonomics Modeling and Usability Evaluation. Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics Series, pp. 219–225. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2012)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Razza, B.M., Paschoarelli, L.C.: Hand strength and the product design: A review. Revista Tecnológica 18, 37–52 (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rebelo, F., Duarte, E., Noriega, P., Soares, M.: Virtual reality in consume products design: Methods and applications. In: Karwowski, W., Soares, M., Stanton, N. (eds.) Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Product Design: Methods and Techniques, pp. 381–404. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burdea, G., Coiffet, P.: Virtual Reality Technology, 2nd edn. Wiley-IEEE Press, New Brunswick (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    CyberGlove® Reference Manual v. 1, Virtual Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto (1991-1998)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    CyberGraspTM User’s Guide v1.2, Immersion Corporation, San Jose C.A (2000-2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodello, I.A., Sanches, S.R.R., Sementille, A.C., Brega, J.R.F.: Realidade Misturada: Conceitos, Ferramentas e Aplicações. Revista Brasileira de Computação Aplicada 2(2), 2–16 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafaela Q. Barros
    • 1
  • Marcelo Márico Soares
    • 1
  • Maria Goretti Fernandes
    • 2
  1. 1.Program of Post-graduation in DesignFederal University of PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Departament of PhysiotherapyFederal University of SergipeAracajuBrasil

Personalised recommendations