It is known that because of the vertical position of the human body, there are few serious imperfections in the human musculoskeletal structure. These critical defects, results in the uncomfortableness of heavy loaded backpack users. Proposed in the article system, can greatly reduce that imperfections. That can be done, by considering the right “flow of forces”, “running” through the ultralight structure, supporting the safe way of transmission of the loadings through the body. The ultralight exoskeleton walking system combines of two subsystems: pneumatic cushion system, and attached, to the backpack ultralight structural system. Pneumatic one, saves the human spine structures and the second one gives the right way of force transmission. Both systems, are made, to reduce the muscles fatigue, and the uncomfortableness during long the loading periods.


backpack heavy loadings spine flow of forces musculoskeletal disorders musculoskeletal strain reduce 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ackermann, W.P.: Chiropraktyka ukierunkowana, diagnoza i techniki. Ackermann InstitutetGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bochenek, A., Reicher, M.: Anatomia człowieka, Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, T.1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hansen, A.: Ergonomia, na co dzień, Instytut Wydawniczy Związków Zawodowych, Warszawa (1987)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Horst, W.: Obciążenia układu ruchu, przyczyny i skutki, Oficyna Wydaw PWr, Wrocław (2006)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marcinkowski, J.I., Horst, W.: Aktualne problemy bezpieczeństwa pracy i ergonomiiGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paluch, R., Kuliński, M., Michalski, R.: Obciążenia układu ruchu, przyczyny i skutki, PAN, Komitet Ergonomii, p. 45. Wrocław (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Poplewski, R.: Anatomia ssaków, Spółdzielnia Wydawnicza Czytelnik, T2 (1947)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michal Pelczarski
    • 1
  1. 1.Wroclaw University of TechnologyWroclawPoland

Personalised recommendations