Impact of Multi-sensory On-Bicycle Rider Assistance Devices on Rider Concentration and Safety

  • Chao-Yang Yang
  • Yu-Ting Wu
  • Cheng-Tse Wu
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8519)


This study evaluated the impact of multi-sensory information cues from on-bicycle rider information assistance devices (OBRAD) on hazard perception performance. Experiments tested the impact of distraction from different combinations of visual, auditory and tactile sensory aids on the subject’s ability to maintain peddling frequency while conducting eight different tasks. The results indicate that the integrated use of different sensory cues (e.g., text, audible alerts and vibration) can decrease cognitive loading, with each sensory combination, particularly those involving tactile stimulation, having different levels of effect. Tactile sensory aids helped reduce the degree of rider distraction, thus helping maintain a high sensitivity to danger (hit rate mean: 0.34). Cycling performance was further improved through combining tactile stimuli with auditory cues for assistance in the secondary task. The implications of these findings and the need to integrate and manage complex OBRAD information systems are discussed.


cycling performance multi-sensory hazard perception cognitive loading 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bragg, B.W., Finn, P.: Influence of safety belt usage on perception of the risk of an accident. Accident Analysis & Prevention 17(1), 15–23 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brouwer, W.H., Waterink, W., Van Wolffelaar, P.C., Rothengatter, T.: Divided attention in experienced young and older drivers: lane tracking and visual analysis in a dynamic driving simulator. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 33(5), 573–582 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burnett, G.E., Mark Porter, J.: Ubiquitous computing within cars: designing controls for non-visual use. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 55(4), 521–531 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Congdon, P.: VicRoads Hazard Perception Test, Can it Predict Accidents? (1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Currib, L.: The perception of danger in a simulated driving task. Ergonomics 12(6), 841–849 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dingus, T.A., Klauer, S.G., Neale, V.L., Petersen, A., Lee, S.E., Sudweeks, J.D., Perez, M.A., Hankey, J., Ramsey, D.J., Gupta, S., Bucher, C., Doerzaph, Z.R., Jermeland, J., Knipling, R.R.: The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study, Phase II - Results of the 100-Car Field Experiment (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Doshi, A., Trivedi, M.: A comparative exploration of eye gaze and head motion cues for lane change intent prediction. 2008 IEEE Paper Presented at the Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Droll, J.A.: The Velocity of Visual Attention in Vehicle Accidents. American Association for Justice (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eilert-Petersson, E., Schelp, L.: An epidemiological study of bicycle-related injuries. Accident Analysis & Prevention 29(3), 363–372 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gopher, G.: Attentional allocation in dual task environments. Attention and Performance III (1990)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guerin, B.: What Do People Think About the Risks of Driving? Implications for Traffic Safety Interventions1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 24(11), 994–1021 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hancock, P., Verwey, W.B.: Fatigue, workload and adaptive driver systems. Accident Analysis & Prevention 29(4), 495–506 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jones, S., Furner, S.: The construction of audio icons and information cues for human-computer dialogues. Paper Presented at the Contemporary Ergonomics: Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society’s 1989 Annual Conference (1989)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Konstantopoulos, P., Chapman, P., Crundall, D.: Driver’s visual attention as a function of driving experience and visibility. Using a driving simulator to explore drivers’ eye movements in day, night and rain driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention 42(3), 827–834 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Korteling, J.H.: Effects of aging, skill modification, and demand alternation on multiple-task performance. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 36(1), 27–43 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lansdown, T.C., Brook-Carter, N., Kersloot, T.: Distraction from multiple in-vehicle secondary tasks: vehicle performance and mental workload implications. Ergonomics 47(1), 91–104 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee, Y.-C., Lee, J.D., Boyle, L.N.: Visual attention in driving: the effects of cognitive load and visual disruption. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 49(4), 721–733 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Magill, R.A., Anderson, D.: Motor learning and control: Concepts and applications, vol. II. McGraw-Hill, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Matanzo, F., Rockwell, T.H.: Driving performance under nighttime conditions of visual degradation. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 9(5), 427–432 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Plainis, S., Murray, I.: Reaction times as an index of visual conspicuity when driving at night. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics 22(5), 409–415 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Qian, H., Kuber, R., Sears, A.: Towards developing perceivable tactile feedback for mobile devices. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 69(11), 705–719 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Recarte, M.A., Nunes, L.M.: Mental workload while driving: effects on visual search, discrimination, and decision making. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 9(2), 119 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Renge, K.: Drivers’Hazard and Risk Perception, Confidence in Safe Driving, and Choice of Speed. IATSS Research 22(2), 103–110 (1998)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rockwell, T.: Spare visual capacity in driving-revisited: New empirical results for an old idea. Paper Presented at the Vision in Vehicles II. Second International Conference on Vision in Vehicles (1988)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rodgers, G.B.: Factors associated with the crash risk of adult bicyclists. Journal of Safety Research 28(4), 233–241 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sagberg, F., Bjørnskau, T.: Hazard perception and driving experience among novice drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention 38(2), 407–414 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Salvucci, D.D.: Modeling driver distraction from cognitive tasks. Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stanton, N.A., Salmon, P.M.: Human error taxonomies applied to driving: A generic driver error taxonomy and its implications for intelligent transport systems. Safety Science 47(2), 227–237 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Summala, H., Lamble, D., Laakso, M.: Driving experience and perception of the lead car’s braking when looking at in-car targets. Accident Analysis & Prevention 30(4), 401–407 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tränkle, U., Gelau, C., Metker, T.: Risk perception and age-specific accidents of young drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention 22(2), 119–125 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Van Erp, J.B., Van Veen, H.A.: Vibrotactile in-vehicle navigation system. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 7(4), 247–256 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Welford, A.T., Brebner, J.M.T.: Introduction: an historical background sketch, New York (1980)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chao-Yang Yang
    • 1
  • Yu-Ting Wu
    • 2
  • Cheng-Tse Wu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial DesignTatung UniversityTaipei CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Industrial DesignChang Gung UniversityKuei ShanTaiwan

Personalised recommendations