Challenges in Implementation of TVM (Ticket Vending Machine) in Developing Countries for Mass Transport System: A Study of Human Behavior while Interacting with Ticket Vending Machine-TVM

  • Mazhar Abbas
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8519)


This article aims to identify the problems faced by passengers in developing countries of suburbs and city containing facility of mass transportation system. The research was focused on the difficulties of common passengers that rises up to 80,000 passengers each day in acquiring ticket/tokens for travelling on Metro Bus System (MBS). Particularly the article focuses on the Ticket Vending Machine (TVM) procedure for tokens acquiring and smart card facility procedure for regular MBS users. Beside the role of literacy and training this article also aims the user behavior in adaptation of newly introduce intelligent ticketing system for MBS facility in Lahore. Absence of user friendliness in TVM and few other key issues has been also investigated in this Article. A discussion on highlighted fact that the interface has been adopted from turkey where the scenario and user both have vast difference from the user and scenario here in Pakistan; therefore users found confused in adaptation of such smart facility for MBS in shape of TVM. A rigorous field work was conducted for collecting behavioral and other routine practicing data. It has been done by visual observation (incl. photography), the behavior of everyday commuters and interviewing them using a structured questionnaire. Identification of negligence factor was the part of study in the efforts made by the government; to provide ease for passengers, who interact with TVM, specifically by elderly, disabled and underage travellers at MBS.

Therefore beside the other prospects of this research the main focus of this study is to identify the TVM usage as ignored facility. Suggestions for the future prospects of TVM in Pakistan are also addressed.


User experience Ergonomics Interface Design Modern technologies 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazhar Abbas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Product DesignUniversity of GujratGujratPakistan

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