Advertisement

Mental Models for Usable Privacy: A Position Paper

  • Kovila P. L. Coopamootoo
  • Thomas Groß
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8533)

Abstract

In this position paper, we propose a new approach to privacy decision-making that relies on conceptual representations of mental models. We suggest that helping users to construct mental models of privacy will facilitate privacy decisions and hence contribute towards usable privacy. We advance that usable privacy research will benefit from qualitative and quantitative user studies that first elicit users’ mental models of privacy and second aim to build a composite model of the concept maps of users’ mental models. The links between the concept maps and deductive and inductive reasoning, and System 1 and 2 of the dual-process theory, are thought to potentially provide valuable insights for future usable privacy research. We also propose that the composite model might provide routes to privacy decisions and enable us to develop strategies akin to nudges aimed towards facilitating privacy behaviour.

Keywords

Usable privacy mental models dual-process System 1 System 2 deductive inductive privacy decision-making 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Spiekermann, S., Grossklags, J., Berendt, B.: E-privacy in 2nd Generation E-Commerce: Privacy preferences vs. actual behavior. In: Proc. ACM Conf. E-Commerce, pp. 38–47 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acquisti, A., Grossklags, J.: Privacy and rationality in indiviual decision making. IEEE S & P 3(1), 26–33 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spiekermann, S., Cranor, L.: Engineering privacy. IEEE Trans. on S/W Eng. 38(1), 67–82 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Langheinrich, M.: Privacy by Design - Principles of Privacy-Aware Ubiquitous Systems. In: Abowd, G.D., Brumitt, B., Shafer, S. (eds.) UbiComp 2001. LNCS, vol. 2201, pp. 273–291. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cavoukian, A.: Privacy by Design... Take the Challenge. Information (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Milne, G.R., Culnan, M.J.: Strategies for reducing privacy risks: why consumers read (or don’t read) online privacy notices? Journ. of Interactive Marketing 18(3), 15–29 (2004); and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada (2009) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zwick, D., Dholakia, N.: Models of privacy in the digital age: implications for marketing and e-commerce. Research Inst. for Telecom. and Information Marketing (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tversky, A., Kahneman, D.: Judgement under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science 185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palen, L., Dourish, P.: ‘Unpacking’ privacy for a networked world. In: Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 126–136. ACM, NY (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Norman, D.A.: Some observations on mental models. In: Human-computer Interaction, pp. 241–244. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., CA (1983, 1987)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borgman, C.L.: The user’s mental model of an information retrieval system: effects on performance. Dissertation abstract internations, 45, 4a (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Halasz, F.G.: Mental models and problem solving in using a calculator. Doctoral dissertation, Standord University, CA, USA (1984)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stanovich, K.E.: Who is Rational? Studies of Individual Differences in Reasoning, Elrbaum (1999)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F.: Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate. Behav. Brain Sci. 23, 645–726 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Evans, J.B.T.: Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology 59, 255–278 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kahneman, D.: Thinking fast and slow. Farrar, Strauss (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nissenbaum, H.F.: Privacy as contextual integrity. Washington Law Review 79(1), 119–158 (2004)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Altman, I.: The Environment and Social Behaviour: Privacy, Personal Space, Territory and Crowding. Brooks/Cole Publishing, Monterey (1975)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coles-Kemp, L., Kani-Zabihi, E.: On-line privacy and consent: a dialogue, not a monologue. In: NSPW 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bennett, L.: Reflections on privacy, identity and consent in on-line services. Information Security Technical Report 14, 119–123 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    LeBoeuf, R.A., Shafir, E.: Decision Making. In: Holyoak, K.J., Morrisson, R.G. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kahneman, D., Tversky, A.: Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47(2), 262–292 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kahneman, D., Jack, L.K., Thaler, R.: Anomalies: The endowment effect, loss aversion and the status quo bias. Journal of Economic Perspectives 5(1), 193–206 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kahneman, D., Frederick, S.: A model of Heuristic Judgment. In: Holyoak, K.J., Morrisson, R.G. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D., Tice, D.M.: The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Craik, K.: The nature of explanation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1943)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N.: Mental Models: Towards a Cognitive Science of Language, Inference, and Consciousness. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1983)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N.: How we reason. Oxford University Press (2006)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Evans, J.B.T., Over, D.E., Handley, S.J.: Suppositions, extensionality, and conditionals: a critique of the mental model theory of Johnson-Laird and Byrne. Psychological Review 112(4), 1040–1052 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gauffroy, C., Barouillet, P.: Heuristic and analytic processes in mental models for conditionals: an integrative development theory. Develop. Review 29(4), 249–282 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N.: Mental models and human reasoning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107(43) (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J.: Deduction. Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1991)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Polk, T.A., Newell, A.: Deduction as verbal reasoning. Psychol. Rev. 102, 533–566 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rogers, Y., Rutherford, A., Bibby, P.A.: Models in the Mind: Theory, Perspective and Application, London (1992)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Markman, A.B., Gentner, D.: Thinking. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 223–247 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N.: Mental models and thought. In: Holyoak, K.J., Morrisson, R.G. (eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N., Byrne, R.M.J.: Conditionals: A theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. Psychological Review 109, 646–678 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Barrouillet, P., Gauffroy, C., Lecas, J.F.: Mental models and the suppositional account of conditionals. Psychological Review 115(3), 760–771 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sasse, M.A.: Eliciting and Describing Users’ Models of Computer Systems. Ph.D. Thesis, Computer Science, University of Birmingham (1997)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gentner, D., Gentner, D.R.: Flowing waters or teemings crowds: mental models of electricity. In: Gentner, D., Stevens, A.L. (eds.) Mental Models, pp. 99–130. Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Hilsdale (1983)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Carley, K., Palmquist, M.: Extracting, representing, and analyzing mental models. Social Forces 70(3), 601–636 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DeKleer, J., Brown, J.S.: Assumptions and ambiguities in mechanistics mental models. In: Gentner, D., Stevens, A.L. (eds.) Mental Models, pp. 155–190. Lawrence Erlbaum Associate, Hilsdale (1983)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lederer, S., Mankoff, J., Dey, A.K.: Who Wants to Know What When? Privacy Preference Determinants in Ubiquitous Computing. In: CHI 2003. ACM, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Richter-Lipford, H., Besmer, A., Watson, J.: Understanding privacy settings in Facebook with an audience view. In: Proc. 1st Conf. on Usability Psych., & Sec., pp. 1–8. USENIX Association (2008)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    Wästlund, E., Angulo, J., Fischer-Hübner, S.: Evoking comprehensive mental models of anonymous credentials. In: Camenisch, J., Kesdogan, D. (eds.) iNetSec 2011. LNCS, vol. 7039, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Camp, L.J.: Mental models of privacy and security. IEEE Technology and Society Magazine 28(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Simon, H.A., Chase, W.G.: Skill in chess. American Scientist 61, 394–403 (1973)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    van der Veer, G.C.: Individual differences and the user interface. Ergonomics 32, 1431–1449 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Otter, M., Johnson, H.: Lost in hyperspace: metrics and mental models. Interacting with Computers 13, 1–40 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kraiger, K., Salas, E.: Measuring mental models to assess learning during training. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, San Francisco, CA (1993)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Diesner, J., Kumaraguru, P., Carley, K.M.: Mental models of privacy and security from interviews with Indians. In: 55th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, New York, NY (2005)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Adams, A., Lunt, P., Cairns, P.: A qualitative approach to HCI research. In: Cairns, P., Cox, A.L. (eds.) Research Methods for Human-Computer Interaction, 1st edn., pp. 138–157. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kinchin, I.M., Hay, D.B.: How a qualitative approach to concept map analysis can be used to aid learning by illustrating patterns of conceptual development. Educational Research 42(1) (2000)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Halford, G.S.: Children’s Understanding: The Development of Mental Models. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1993)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Novak, J.D.: Learning, Creating and Using Knowledge: Concept Maps as Facilitative Tools in Schools and Corporations. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale (1998)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Novak, J.D., Gowin, D.B.: Learning How to Learn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wason, P.C.: Reasoning. In: Foss, B.M. (ed.) New Horizons in Psychology, Penguin, Harmondworth (1966)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dolan, P., Hallsworth, M., Halpern, D., King, D., Metcalfe, R., Vlaev, I.: Influencing behaviour: The mindspace way. Journal of Economic Psychology 33(1), 264–277 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kovila P. L. Coopamootoo
    • 1
  • Thomas Groß
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Computing ScienceNewcastle UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations