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Scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is saturating soon. This will definitively cause the seizure of development in computing if no alternatives are found. These alternatives should have the capacity to overcome all limitations of current techniques. These alternatives are silicon on insulator (SOI), FinFET, twin-well, high-K, metal gate, strained-Si, 3D, network on chip (NoC), optical, wireless, molecular computer, biological computer, and quantum computer. All these new technologies are under development and may be available for commercial use in the near future. Three-dimensional integration technology using through silicon via (TSV) is one of the possible future integrated circuit (IC) design technologies. It can offer many advantages over the existing 2D integration technology. However, many challenges (modeling, thermal, computer-aided design (CAD) tools, yield and test, technological, design methodologies, circuit architectures) should be overcome before TSV-based 3D IC production becomes possible.