Markov Chain and Classification of Difficulty Levels Enhances the Learning Path in One Digit Multiplication

  • Behnam Taraghi
  • Anna Saranti
  • Martin Ebner
  • Martin Schön
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8523)


In this work we focus on a specific application named “1x1 trainer” that has been designed to assist children in primary school to learn one digit multiplications. We investigate the database of learners’ answers to the asked questions by applying Markov chain and classification algorithms. The analysis identifies different clusters of one digit multiplication problems in respect to their difficulty for the learners. Next we present and discuss the outcomes of our analysis considering Markov chain of different orders for each question. The results of the analysis influence the learning path for every pupil and offer a personalized recommendation proposal that optimizes the way questions are asked to each pupil individually.


Learning Analytics One digit multiplication Knowledge discovery Math Markov chain Primary school 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Behnam Taraghi
    • 1
  • Anna Saranti
    • 1
  • Martin Ebner
    • 1
  • Martin Schön
    • 1
  1. 1.Graz University of TechnologyGrazAustria

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