Development of a Squad Level Vocabulary for Human-Robot Interaction

  • Daniel Barber
  • Ryan W. Wohleber
  • Avonie Parchment
  • Florian Jentsch
  • Linda Elliott
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8525)


Interaction with robots in military applications is trending away from teleoperation and towards collaboration. Enabling this transition requires technologies for natural and intuitive communication between Soldiers and robots. Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) systems designed using a well-defined lexicon are likely to be more robust to the challenges of dynamic and noisy environments inherent to military operations. To successfully apply this approach to ASR development, lexicons should involve an early focus on the target audience. To facilitate development a vocabulary focused at the squad level for Human Robot Interaction (HRI), 31 Soldiers from Officer Candidate School at Ft. Benning, GA provided hypothetical commands for directing an autonomous robot to perform a variety of spatial navigation and reconnaissance tasks. These commands were analyzed, using word frequency counts and heuristics, to determine the structure and word choice of commands. Results presented provide a baseline Squad Level Vocabulary (SLV) and a foundation for development of HRI technologies enabling multi-modal communications within mixed-initiative teams.


Human-robot interaction human-robot teaming mixed-initiative teams speech recognition 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Barber
    • 1
  • Ryan W. Wohleber
    • 1
  • Avonie Parchment
    • 1
  • Florian Jentsch
    • 1
  • Linda Elliott
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Simulation and TrainingUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Army Research LaboratoryFort BenningUSA

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