Players’ Opinions on Control and Playability of a BCI Game
Brain-computer interface (BCI) games can satisfy our need for competence by providing us with challenges that we should enjoy tackling. However, many BCI games that claim to provide enjoyable challenges fail to do so. Some common fallacies and pitfalls about BCI games play a role in this failure and in this paper we report on a study that we carried out to empirically investigate them. More specifically, we explored (1) active and passive interaction with BCI games, (2) BCI gaming as a skill and (3) playability of a BCI game. We conducted an experiment with 42 participants who played a popular computer game called World of Warcraft using a commercial BCI headset called EPOC. We conducted interviews about the participants’ experiences of the game and ran a phenomenological analysis on their responses. The analysis results showed that (1) the players would like to play a BCI game actively if the BCI controls critical game elements, (2) the technical challenges of BCI cannot motivate the players to play a BCI game and (3) the players’ enjoyment of one-time playing of a BCI game does not imply playability of the game.
KeywordsComputer Game Alpha Rhythm Game Character Pragmatic Quality Relaxation Estimation
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 7.George, L., Lotte, F., Abad, R., Lecuyer, A.: Using scalp electrical biosignals to control an object by concentration and relaxation tasks: Design and evaluation. In: 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, pp. 6299–6302. IEEE, Piscataway (2011)Google Scholar
- 8.Gürkök, H.: Mind the Sheep! User Experience Evaluation & Brain-Computer Interface Games. PhD thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands (2012)Google Scholar
- 10.Sokolowski, R.: Introduction to Phenomenology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
- 11.Nardi, B., Harris, J.: Strangers and friends: Collaborative play in World of Warcraft. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp. 149–158. ACM, New York (2006)Google Scholar
- 12.Yee, N., Ducheneaut, N., Nelson, L., Likarish, P.: Introverted elves & conscientious gnomes: The expression of personality in World of Warcraft. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 753–762. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
- 13.Billieux, J., van der Linden, M., Achab, S., Khazaal, Y., Paraskevopoulos, L., Zullino, D., Thorens, G.: Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth. Computers in Human Behavior 29(1), 103–109 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 15.Scherer, R., Friedrich, E.C.V., Allison, B., Pröll, M., Chung, M., Cheung, W., Rao, R.P.N., Neuper, C.: Non-invasive brain-computer interfaces: Enhanced gaming and robotic control. In: Cabestany, J., Rojas, I., Joya, G. (eds.) IWANN 2011, Part I. LNCS, vol. 6691, pp. 362–369. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Deuschl, G., Eisen, A. (eds.): Recommendations for the Practice of Clinical Neurophysiology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
- 19.Vaughan, T.M., Sellers, E.W., Wolpaw, J.R.: Clinical evaluation of BCIs. In: Brain-Computer Interfaces: Principles and Practice, pp. 325–336. Oxford University Press, New York (2012)Google Scholar
- 22.Tesch, R.: Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools. RoutledgeFalmer, London (1990)Google Scholar