Broadening the TP Profile: Future Negative Time Perspective

  • Maria Grazia Carelli
  • Britt Wiberg
  • Elisabeth Åström


The importance of the future as an arena for planning, self-regulation and achievement has been of considerable interest in past research. The majority of this research suggests that future-oriented thinking has considerable benefits for psychological adjustment and wellbeing. The future is nevertheless not only a temporal space for goal-setting and positive expectations, it may also be associated with fear, uncertainty and anxiety, which may ultimately have detrimental effects on both mental and physical health. Here we present the outline for the Swedish ZTPI (S-ZTPI) which extends the original ZTPI by separating the Future dimension into two sub-factors: The Future Positive scale and the Future Negative scale. We argue that separating the future into two separate dimensions thus comprehending both a positive and a negative valence of the future, adds important information regarding association between future time perspective and subjective well-being.


  1. Andersson, K. B., & Wood, M. D. (2005). Considering the future consequences of aggressive acts: Established and potential effects in the context of the general aggression model. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time (pp. 85–107). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  2. Aspinwall, L. G. (2005). The psychology of future-oriented thinking: From achievement to proactive coping, adaptation, and aging. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 203–235. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9013-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atance, C. M., & O’Neill, D. K. (2001). Episodic future thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(12), 533–539.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow, D. H. (1988). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  6. Basoğlu, M., Livanou, M., Crnobarić, C., Frančišković, T., Suljić, E., Durić, D., & Vranešić, M. (2005). Psychiatric and cognitive effects of war in former Yugoslavia. JAMA, 294, 580–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., & Emery, G. (2005). Anxiety disorders and phobias. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (2004). Inherent association between academic delay of gratification, future time perspective, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 16(1), 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bluedorn, A. C. (2002). The human organization of time: Temporal realities and experience. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Boninger, D. S., Gleicher, F., & Strathman, A. (1994). Counterfactual thinking: From what might have been to what may be. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Linley, P. A., & Ivanchenko, G. V. (2010). A question of balance: Time perspective and well-being in British and Russian samples. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyd, J. N., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). Time perspective, health, and risk taking. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time (pp. 85–107). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  13. Calster, K. V., Lens, W., & Nuttin, J. R. (1987). Affective attitude toward the personal future: Impact on motivation in high school boys. American Journal of Psychology, 100(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carelli, M. G., & Wiberg, B. (2012). Time out of mind: Temporal perspective in adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(6), 460–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carelli, M. G., Wiberg, B., & Wiberg, M. (2011). Development and construct validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 220–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daltrey, M. H. (1982). The development and evaluation of a future time perspective instrument. Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  17. Daltrey, M. H., & Langer, P. (1984). Development and evaluation of a measure of future time perspective. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58(3), 719–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Volder, M. L., & Lens, W. (1982). Academic achievement and future time perspective as a cognitive-motivational concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42(3), 566–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heidegger, M. (1992). The history of the concept of time: Prolegomena. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280–1300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holman, E. A., & Silver, R. C. (1998). Getting “stuck” in the past: Temporal orientation and coping with trauma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1146–1163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holman, E. A., & Silver, R. C. (2005). Future-oriented thinking and adjustment in a nationwide longitudinal study following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 389–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Husman, J., & Shell, D. F. (2008). Beliefs and perceptions about the future: A measurement of future time perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 18, 166–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kahana, E., Kahana, B., & Zhang, J. (2005). Motivational antecedents of preventive proactivity in late life: Linking future orientation and exercise. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 443–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kasterbaum, R. (1961). The dimension of future time perspective, an experimental analysis. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 65, 203–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lang, F. R., & Carstensen, L. L. (2002). Time counts: Future time perspective, goals, and social relationships. Stanford University. Psychology and Aging, 17(1), 125–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lasane, T. P., & O’Donnell, D. A. (2005). Time orientation measurement: A conceptual approach. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time (pp. 11–30). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  28. Lavender, A., & Watkins, E. R. (2004). Rumination and future thinking in depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 129–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in the social sciences: Selected theoretical papers. Oxford: Harpers.Google Scholar
  30. MacLeod, A. K., & Byrne, A. (1996). Anxiety, depression, and the anticipation of future positive and negative experiences. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(2), 286–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nurmi, J.-E. (1991). How do adolescents see their future: A review of the development of future orientation and planning. Developmental Review, 11, 1–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nurmi, J.-E. (2005). Thinking about and acting upon the future. Development of future orientation across the lifespan. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time (pp. 31–58). Mahwah: Lawrence Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  33. Nuttin, J. (1972). Time Attitude Scale (TAS). Unpublished manual, Louvain, Research Center for Motivation and Time Perspective.Google Scholar
  34. Nuttin, J. R., & Lens, W. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Leuven/Hillsdale: Leuven University Press/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Otrar, M., Eksi, H., Dilmac, B., & Sikin, A. (2002). The sources of stress, coping, and psychological well- being among Turkic and relative societies’ students in Turkey. EDAM Egitim Danismanligi Ve Arastirmalari Merkezi, 2, 473–506.Google Scholar
  36. Poole, M. E., & Cooney, G. H. (1987). Orientations to the future: A comparison of adolescents in Australia and Singapore. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(2), 124–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pöppel, E. (1997). A hierarchical model of temporal perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sanna, L. J., Stocker, S. L., & Clarke, J. A. (2003). Rumination, imagination, and personality: Specters of the past and future in the present. In E. C. Chang & L. J. Sanna (Eds.), Virtue, vice, and personality: The complexity of behavior (pp. 105–124). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shell, D. F., & Husman, J. (2001). The multivariate dimensionality of personal control and future time perspective in achievement and studying. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26, 481–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shipp, A. J., Edwards, J. R., & Lambert, L. S. (2009). Conceptualization and measurement of temporal focus: The subjective experience of the past, present, and future. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shirai, T. (1997). Time orientation and identifying adolescence and middle age. Memoires of Osaka Kyouku University, Ser. IV, Education, Psychology, Special Education, and Physical education, 45(2), 207–226.Google Scholar
  42. Shirai, T., Nakamura, T., & Katsuma, K. (2012). Time orientation and identity formation: Long-term longitudinal dynamics in emerging adulthood. Japanese Psychological Research, 54(3), 274–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Solantaus, T. (1987). Hopes and worries of young people in three European countries. Health Promotion, 2, 19–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boniger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcome behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(4), 742–752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Suddendorf, T. (2006). Foresight and the evolution of the human mind. Science, 312, 1006–1007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Suddendorf, T., & Corballis, M. C. (1997). Mental time travel and the evolution of the human mind. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123, 133–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Tulving, E. (2001). Origin of autonoesis in episodic memory. In H. L. Roedediger et al. (Eds.), The nature of remembering: Essays in honor of Robert G. Crowder (pp. 17–34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  48. Van Beek, W., Berghuis, H., Kerkhof, A., & Beekman, A. (2011). Time perspective, personality and psychopathology: Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory in psychiatry. Time and Society, 20(3), 364–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wiberg, M., & Carelli, M. G. (2014). Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time. Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, 2, 3. doi:10.7243/2054-4723-2-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wittmann, M. (2009). The inner experience of time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 364, 1955–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Worrell, F. C., & Mello, Z. R. (2007). The reliability and validity of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory scores in academically talented adolescents. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67, 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zaleski, Z. (1996). Future anxiety: Concept, measurement, and preliminary research. Personality and Individual Differences, 20(2), 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zaleski, Z. (2005). Future orientation and anxiety. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research, and application (pp. 125–141). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  54. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual- differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Grazia Carelli
    • 1
  • Britt Wiberg
    • 1
  • Elisabeth Åström
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations