Skip to main content

Time Perspective Profiles of Cultures

Abstract

This chapter summarises some results of the International Time Perspective Research Project, which is a collaborative cross-cultural study of time perspective carried out in 24 countries. The highlights of structural equivalence assessment study are presented, showing the cross-cultural invariance of 36 items of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scale. The associations between country-level ZTPI scores and other culture-level indicators, including the Human Development Index and Hofstede cultural dimensions, are presented and discussed. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, five distinct profiles of time perspective were found (future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced, moderately fatalistic, and negative), and significant differences in the prevalence of these profiles across cultures were found. Implications and perspectives for future research are discussed.

Keywords

  • Differential Item Functioning
  • Human Development Index
  • Time Perspective
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
  • Future Orientation

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

The 54 members of the International Time Perspective Research Project are listed in alphabetical order by country: Slimane Djarallah (Université of Batna, Algeria), Mohamed Seghir Chorfi (Université Ferhat Abbas – Setif, Algeria), Umbelina do Rego Leite (Universidade de Rio Verde, Brasil), Hui Lin (Peking University, China), Houchao Lv (Southwest University, China), Tomislav Bunjevac, Tena Tomaš, Jasmina Punek, Anica Vrlec, Jelena Matić, Marko Bokulić (University of Zagreb, Croatia), Martina Klicperová-Baker, Jaroslav Košťál (Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic), Riin Seema, Arno Baltin (Tallinn University, Estonia), Themistoklis Apostolidis (Université de Provence, France), Daphne Pediaditakis (Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Germany), Fay Griva, Fotios Anagnostopoulos (Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Greece), Nurit Carmi, Marina Goroshit (Tel-Hai College, Israel), Martina Peri (Salesiana University, Rome, Italy), Yumi Shimojima (Kyorin University, Japan), Koichi Sato (Gunma University, Japan), Keita Ochi (Hosei University, Japan), Antanas Kairys (Vilnius University, Lithuania), Audrone Liniauskaite (Klaipeda University, Lithuania), Víctor Corral-Verdugo (Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico), Aneta Przepiorka, Agata Blachnio (The John Paul II Catholic University in Lublin, Poland), Victor E. C. Ortuño (Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal), Vítor Gamboa (Universidade do Algarve, Portugal), Olga Mitina, Nadezhda Semyenova (Moscow State University, Russia), Valentina Gerasimova (Kaluga State University of Education, Russia), Tatiana Rawski (Nepryakho) (Tver State University, Russia), Ekaterina Kuleshova (A.I. Gertsen Russian State University of Education, Russia), Natalia Polskaya (Saratov State University, Russia), Nikolaj Tulinov (Balabanovo branch of Moscow State University of Humanities, Russia), Isabella Romanko (St. Petersburg State University, Russia), Yulia Semina (Moscow State Regional University, Russia), Ekaterina Nikitina (Sociology of Education Center, Russian Academy of Education, Russia), Vera Yasnaya (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia), Irina Davydova, Elsa Utyasheva (Russian State University of Humanities, Russia), Irina Emeliyanova (Moscow State University of Psychology and Education, Russia), Regina Ershova (Kolomna State Institute of Education, Russia), Jasmina Nedeljković (Faculty of Law and Business Studies, Novi Sad, Serbia), Juan Francisco Díaz Morales (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain), Maria Grazia Carelli, Britt Wiberg (Umeå University, Sweden), Ilona Boniwell (University of East London, UK), P. Alex Linley (Centre for Applied Positive Psychology, UK), and John Nathan Boyd (Google Inc., USA).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07368-2_11
  • Chapter length: 19 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-07368-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1

References

  • Agsoy, E. J. R., Cacanog, A. Q., Chiong, K. O., & Ocenar, P. A. A. (2010). A validation study of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) using a Cebuano-speaking sample. Unpublished bachelor thesis, The Faculty of the Department of Psychology, University of San Carlos, Philippines.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anagnostopoulos, F., & Griva, F. (2012). Exploring time perspective in Greek young adults: Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and relationships with mental health indicators. Social Indicators Research, 116(1), 41–59. doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9792-y.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Apostolidis, T., & Fieulaine, N. (2004). Validation française de l’échelle de temporalité [French validation of the time perspective inventory]. Revue européenne de psychologie appliquée, 54, 207–217. doi:10.1016/j.erap.2004.03.001.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ashkanasy, N., Gupta, V., Mayfield, M., & Trevor-Roberts, E. (2004). Future orientation. In R. House, P. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. Dorfman, & W. Gupta (Eds.), Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies (pp. 282–342). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauman, Z. (1999). Culture as praxis (Newth ed.). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boniwell, I., & Zimbardo, P. (2004). Balancing time perspective in pursuit of optimal functioning. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (pp. 165–178). Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Linley, P. A., & Ivanchenko, G. (2010). A question of balance: Examining relationships between time perspective and measures of well-being in the British and Russian student samples. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 24–40. doi:10.1080/17439760903271181.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brislin, R. W., & Kim, E. S. (2003). Cultural diversity in people’s understanding and use of time. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 52, 363–382. doi:10.1111/1464-0597.00140.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carelli, M. G., Wiberg, B., & Wiberg, M. (2011). Development and construct validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27, 220–227. doi:10.1027/1015-5759/a000076.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carmi, N., & Goroshit, M. (2013). לש תירבעה הסרגה תניחב :ודרבמיז לש ןמזה תביטקפסרפ [Zimbardo’s time perspective inventory: Testing the Hebrew version]. Megamot – Journal of Behavioral Science, 49.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chen, F. F. (2008). What happens if we compare chopsticks with forks? The impact of making inappropriate comparisons in cross-cultural research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1005–1018. doi:10.1037/a0013193.

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chinese Culture Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143–164. doi:10.1177/0022002187018002002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Corral-Verdugo, V., Fraijo-Sing, B., & Pinheiro, J. Q. (2006). Sustainable behavior and time perspective: Present, past, and future orientations and their relationship with water conservation behavior. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 40, 139–147.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diaz-Morales, J. F. (2006). Estructura factorial y fiabilitad del Inventario de Perspectiva Temporal de Zimbardo [Factorial structure and reliability of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory]. Psicothema, 18(3), 565–571.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dissel, J., & Potgieter J. C. (2007). Validation of a scale to measure time perspective in an African context, Unpublished master’s thesis. North-West University, South Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Djarallah, S., & Seghir Chorfi, S. (2009). تكييف قائمة زمباردو لمنظور الزمن للبيئة العربية [Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) (Arabic version)]. Arabic Journal of Psychological Science, 23, 53–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drake, L., Duncan, E., Sutherland, F., Abernethy, C., & Henry, C. (2008). Time perspective and correlates of well-being. Time and Society, 17(1), 47–61. doi:10.1177/0961463X07086304.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fontaine, J. R. J. (2005). Equivalence. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol. 1, pp. 803–813). San Diego: Academic. doi:10.1016/B0-12-369398-5/00116-X.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Frank, L. K. (1939). Time perspectives. Journal of Social Philosophy, 4, 293–312.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gavreliuc, A., Mitu, E., & Gavreliuc, D. (2012). Time perspective in relation with social axioms for a romanian young cohort. In Proceedings of 15th European conference of developmental psychology (pp. 131137). Milano: Medimond.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, E. T. (1989). Beyond culture. New York: Anchor Books Editions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M. (2010). Long- versus short-term orientation: New perspectives. Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(4), 493–504. doi:10.1080/13602381003637609.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoornaert, J. (1973). Time perspective: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Psychologica Belgica, 13, 265–294.

    Google Scholar 

  • Human Development Report. (2011). Human development statistical annex. New York: HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, pp. 127–130. Retrieved July 4, 2014, http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/HDR/2011%20Global%20HDR/English/HDR_2011_EN_Tables.pdf

  • Kolesovs, A. (2009). Factorial validity of the Latvian and Russian versions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in Latvia. Baltic Journal of Psychology, 10(1,2), 55–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leite, U. R., & Pasquali, L. (2008). Estudo de validação do Inventário de Perspectiva de Tempo do Zimbardo [Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory validation study]. Avaliação Psicológica, 7, 301–320.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levine, R., & Norenzayan, A. (1999). The pace of life in 31 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 178–205. doi:10.1177/0022022199030002003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lewin, K. (1942). Time perspective and morale. In G. Watson (Ed.), Civilian morale. Houghton Mifflin: Boston.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liniauskaite, A., & Kairys, A. (2009). The Lithuanian version of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Psichologija, 40, 66–87.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lukavská, K., Klicperová-Baker, M., Lukavský, J., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). ZTPI – Zimbardův dotazník časové perspektivy [Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory]. Československá psychologie, 55(4), 356–373.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luszczynska, A., Gutiérrez-Doña, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 80–89. doi:10.1080/00207590444000041.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGrath, J. E., & Tschan, F. (2004). Temporal matters in social psychology: Examining the role of time in the lives of groups and individuals. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10659-000.

    Google Scholar 

  • McHale, J. (1978). Time and the future sense. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 12, 1–12. doi:10.1016/0040-1625(78)90031-8.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meade, R. D. (1972). Future time perspectives of Americans and subcultures in India. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 3, 93–99. doi:10.1177/002202217200300108.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Milfont, T. L., & Fischer, R. (2010). Testing measurement invariance across groups: Applications in cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychological Research, 3, 112–131.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milfont, T. L., & Gapski, E. (2010, July). Cross-cultural differences in time orientations: Integrating culture-level data. Paper presented at the 20th Congress of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Melbourne, Australia.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milfont, T. L., Andrade, P. R., Belo, R. P., & Pessoa, V. S. (2008). Testing Zimbardo time perspective inventory in a Brazilian sample. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 42(1), 49–58.

    Google Scholar 

  • Muzdybaev, K. (2000). Переживание времени в период кризисов [Experience of time in the period of crisis]. Psikholologicheskiy Zhurnal, 21(4), 5–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nedeljković, J. (2013). Srpska verzija Zimbardovog upitnika vremenskih perspektiva (ZTPI) [Serbian version of the Zimbardo’s time perspective inventory]. In A. Kostic & J. Nedeljković (Eds.), Studije vremenskih perspektiva u Srbiji [Studies of time perspectives in Serbia] (pp. 33–68). Serbia: PUNTA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortuño, V., & Gamboa, V. (2009). Estrutura factorial do Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory – ZTPI numa amostra de estudantes universitários portugueses [Factorial structure of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory – ZTPI in a sample of Portuguese university students]. Avances en Psicología Latinoamericana, 27, 21–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Osin, E. N., & Orel, E. A. (2012). Возрастная динамика временной перспективы (на материале российских женщин) [Age differences in time perspective (in Russian females)]. In: A. K. Bolotova (Ed.), Перспективные направления психологической науки: сб. науч. ст., вып. 2 (Perspective Directions in Psychological Science: Collected Papers, Issue 2) (pp. 85–103). Moscow: Higher School of Economics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Przepiorka, A. (2011). The determinants of realizing entrepreneurial goals. Unpublished doctoral thesis, The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seema, R., & Sircova, A. (2013). Mindfulness – A time perspective? Estonian study. Baltic Journal of Psychology, 14(1/2), 4–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Senyk O. (2012). Адаптація опитувальника часової перспективи особистості Ф. Зімбардо (ZTPI) (The Ukrainian adaptation of Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI)). Соціальна психологія, 1/2(51–52), 153–168.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shimojima, Y., Sato, K., & Ochi, K. (2012). Factor structure of the Japanese version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). The Japanese Journal of Personality, 21(1), 74–83.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sircova, A., Mitina, O. V., Boyd, J., Davydova, I. S., Zimbardo, P. G., Nepryaho, T. L., Nikitina, E. A., Semyonova, N. S., Fieulaine, N., & Yasnaya, V. A. (2007). Феномен временной перспективы в разных культурах (по материалам исследований с помощью методики ZTPI) [The phenomenon of time perspective across different cultures: Review of researches using ZTPI scale]. International Journal of Cultural-Historical Psychology, 4, 19–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sircova, A., Sokolova, E. T., & Mitina, O. V. (2008). Адаптация опросника временной перспективы личности Ф. Зимбардо [Adaptation of Zimbardo time perspective inventory]. Psikhologigesky Journal, 29, 101–109.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sircova, A., van de Vijver, F. J. R., Osin, E., Milfont, T. L., Fieulaine, N., Kislali-Erginbilgic, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2014). A global look at time: A 24-country study of the equivalence of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. SageOpen, 4(1). doi: 10.1177/2158244013515686.

  • Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 742–752. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.66.4.742.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (1998). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding diversity in global business (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • van Beek, W., Berghuis, J. G., & Kamphuis, J. H. (in preparation). Validation of the Dutch ZTPI: Time perspective in a clinical and a non-clinical sample.

    Google Scholar 

  • van Beek, W., Berghuis, H., Kerkhof, A. J. F. M., & Beekman, A. T. F. (2011). Time perspective, personality and psychopathology: Zimbardo’s time perspective inventory in psychiatry. Time and Society, 20(3), 364–374. doi:10.1177/0961463X10373960.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and data analysis for cross-cultural research. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, L. T., Valk, R., & Dialmy, A. (2011). What is the meaning of “on time”? The sociocultural nature of standards of punctuality. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 482–493. doi:10.1177/0022022110362746.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1271.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2008). The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Consortia

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anna Sircova .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Sircova, A. et al. (2015). Time Perspective Profiles of Cultures. In: Stolarski, M., Fieulaine, N., van Beek, W. (eds) Time Perspective Theory; Review, Research and Application. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07368-2_11

Download citation