Temperature Field in FSW Process: Experimental Measurement and Numerical Simulation

  • C. CasavolaEmail author
  • A. Cazzato
  • V. Moramarco
  • C. Pappalettere
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new welding process, which was developed at The Welding Institute (TWI), United Kingdom, in 1991. FSW is a solid-state joining process, i.e. no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centreline. Thus the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than the conventional fusion welding. Nevertheless the control of the temperature field is fundamental to guarantee a high quality joint. In the present work the temperature field during the welding process was measured using an infrared camera. The test was conducted on 6 mm thick 5754 H111 aluminium alloy plates, in bead on plate configuration, with constant tool rotation rate and feed rate. Furthermore a finite element model was implemented and validated on experimental measurement data to evaluate the temperature field also into the plate.


Friction stir welding Welded joint Temperature field Finite element method Infrared thermography 


  1. 1.
    Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, Murch MG, TempleSmith P, Dawes CJ (1991) The Welding Institute, TWI, International Patent Application No. PCT/GB92/02203 and GB Patent Application No. 9125978.8Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mishraa RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R 50:1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Padmanaban G, Balasubramanian V (2009) Selection of FSW tool pin profile, shoulder diameter and material for joining AZ31B magnesium alloy—An experimental approach. Mater Des 30(7):2647–2656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee WB, Jung SB (2004) The joint properties of copper by friction stir welding. Mater Lett 58(6):1041–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sun YF, Fujii H (2010) Investigation of the welding parameter dependent microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded pure copper. Mater Sci Eng A 527(26):6879–6886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shen JJ, Liu HJ, Cui F (2010) Effect of welding speed on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded copper. Mater Des 31(8):3937–3942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fernández JR, Ramirez AJ (2013) Dissimilar friction stir welding of steel to Ni-based alloy 625 - Butt and lap joints. Proceedings of the international offshore and polar engineering conference 2013, pp 207–210Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Campanelli SL, Casalino G, Casavola C, Moramarco V (2013) Analysis and comparison of friction stir welding and laser assisted friction stir welding of aluminum alloy. Materials 6(12):5923–5941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farias A, Batalha GF, Prados EF, Magnabosco R, Delijaicov S (2013) Tool wear evaluations in friction stir processing of commercial titanium Ti–6Al–4 V. Wear 302(1–2):1327–1333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buffa G, Ducato A, Fratini L (2013) FEM based prediction of phase transformations during Friction Stir Welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 581:56–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Esmailzadeh M, Shamanian M, Kermanpur A, Saeid T (2013) Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded lean duplex stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 561:486–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khodir SA, Morisada Y, Ueji R, Fujii H (2012) Microstructures and mechanical properties evolution during friction stir welding of SK4 high carbon steel alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 558:572–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cioffi F, Fernández R, Gesto D, Rey P, Verdera D, González-Doncel G (2013) Friction stir welding of thick plates of aluminum alloy matrix composite with a high volume fraction of ceramic reinforcement. Compos Part A: Appl S 54:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bagheri A, Azdast T, Doniavi A (2013) An experimental study on mechanical properties of friction stir welded ABS sheets. Mater Des 43:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Casavola C, Lamberti L, Pappalettere C, Tattoli F (2010) A comprehensive numerical stress - Strain analysis of laser beam butt-welded titanium compared with austenitic steel joints. J Strain Anal Eng Des 45(7):535–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Casavola C, Campanelli SL, Pappalettere C (2008) Experimental analysis of residual stresses in the selective laser melting process. Society for experimental mechanics - 11th international congress and exhibition on experimental and applied mechanics 2008, vol 3, pp 1479–1486Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gibson BT, Lammlein DH, Prater TJ, Longhurst WR, Cox CD, Ballun MC, Dharmaraj KJ, Cook GE, Strauss AM (2014) Friction stir welding: Process, automation, and control. J Manufact Processes 16(1):56–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peel M, Steuwer A, Preuss M, Withers PJ (2003) Microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses as a function of welding speed in aluminium AA5083 friction stir welds. Acta Mater 51(16):4791–4801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ma Yu E, Xia ZC, Jiang RR, Li WY (2013) Effect of welding parameters on mechanical and fatigue properties of friction stir welded 2198 T8 aluminum–lithium alloy joints. Eng Fract Mech 114:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xu W, Liu J, Luan G, Dong C (2009) Temperature evolution, microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded thick 2219-O aluminum alloy joints. Mater Des 30(6):1886–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Maeda M, Liu H, Fujii H, Shibayanagi T (2005) Temperature field in the vicinity of FSW-tool during friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. Welding in the World 49(3–4):69–75Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hwang YM, Kang ZW, Chiou YC, Hsu HH (2008) Experimental study on temperature distributions within the workpiece during friction stir welding of aluminum alloys. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 48(7–8):778–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Soundararajan V, Zekovic S, Kovacevic R (2005) Thermo-mechanical model with adaptive boundary conditions for friction stir welding of Al 6061. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 45(14):1577–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schmidt H, Hattel J, Wert J (2004) An analytical model for the heat generation in friction stir welding. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 12(1):143–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Song M, Kovacevic R (2003) Thermal modeling of friction stir welding in a moving coordinate system and its validation. Int J Mach Tool Manuf 43(6):605–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    The ANSYS® 14.5 Users’ Manual, Swanson Analysis System Inc. (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chao YJ, Qi X, Tang W (2003) Heat transfer in friction stir welding - experimental and numerical studies. J Manufact Sci Eng, Trans ASME 125(1):138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Long X (2005) Finite element analysis of residual stress generation during spot welding and its effect on fatigue behavior of spot welded joint, PhD Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, USAGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Casavola
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Cazzato
    • 1
  • V. Moramarco
    • 1
  • C. Pappalettere
    • 1
  1. 1.Dip. di Meccanica Matematica e Management (DMMM)Politecnico di BariBariItaly

Personalised recommendations