Advertisement

Residual Stress of Individual Aluminum Grains from Three Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction

  • M. Allahkarami
  • B. Jayakumar
  • J. C. HananEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)

Abstract

Residual stress measurement by interpreting diffraction rings is well developed. The ring is produced by many grains contributing individual diffraction spots, each from their local stress environment. Local stresses limit the bulk strain resolution of X-ray stress methods. The local stresses can be so large, traditional methods fail to produce meaningful results. However, if the local stress environment could be understood, it provides additional value for measuring and predicting material behavior. Experimental determination of the internal stress for one grain from a ring has several challenges. In some special cases, these have been overcome using synchrotron radiation. Here, using a Bruker D8 laboratory X-ray diffractometer and a 2D Hi-star detector, a method of sensing and analyzing X-ray diffraction cones in three dimensions was introduced. After a certain sample detector distance, individual grains can be resolved in spots on the ring. The method requires collecting a sequence of 2D frames at increasing sample to detector distances. The entire three-dimensional X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD3) could be used to determine the average 2θ ring position. This allows new types of strain measurements. Other applications for tracking spots from grains are in development.

Keywords

Residual stress 3D X-ray diffraction (XRD3Diffraction cone 2D diffraction frame 

References

  1. 1.
    Allahkarami M, Hanan JC (2011) Mapping the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in zirconia core dental crowns”. Dent Mater 27(12):1279–1284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allahkarami M, Hanan JC (2012) Residual stress delaying phase transformation in Y-TZP bio-restorations”. Phase Transit 85(1–2):169–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reimers W, Broda M, Brusch G, Dantz D, Liss K-D, Pyzalla A, Schmackers T, Tschentscher T (1998) Residual stress; high energy synchrotron diffraction; energy dispersive diffraction. J Nondestruct Eval 17(3):129–140Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bale HA, Tamura N, Hanan JC (2010) Cyclic impact fatigue and macroscopic failure considering grain-to-grain residual stress in ceramic dental restorations. SEM 2010 annual conference and exposition on experimental and applied mechanicsGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hanan JC, Üstündag E, Beyerlein IJ, Swift GA, Almer JD, Lienert U, Haeffner DR (2003) Microscale damage evolution and stress redistribution in Ti–SiC fiber composites. Acta Mater 51:4239–4250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Reimers W, Pyzalla A, Broda M, Brusch G, Dantz D, Schmackers T (1999) The use of high-energy synchrotron diffraction for residual stress analyses”. J Mater Sci Lett 18:581–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    He B, Preckwinkel U, Smith KL (2003) Comparison between conventional and two-dimensional XRD. Adv X-ray Anal 46:37–42Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    He B, Preckwinkel U, Smith KL (2000) Advantages of using 2D detectors for residual stress measurements”. Adv X-ray Anal 42:429–438Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allahkarami M, Hanan JC (2011) X-ray diffraction mapping on a curved surface. J Appl Crystallogr 44:1211–1216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Allahkarami M, Hanan JC (2014) Residual stress and quantitative phase mapping on complex geometries. Powder Diffract, 29(2), 176–185Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Allahkarami M, Hanan JC (2014) Three-dimensional X-ray diffraction detection and visualization. Meas Sci Technol 25(3)055604 pp. 1–10Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bruker AXS Inc. 2005 M86-EXX007 GADDS User Manual ch 12 (Madison, WI, USA)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krawitz AD (2001) Introduction to diffraction in materials, science, and engineering. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringOklahoma State UniversityTulsaUSA

Personalised recommendations