Environmental Fate and Toxicology of Chlorothalonil
The fungicide chlorothalonil (2,4,5,6-tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile; CAS 1897-45-6; Fig. 1) was introduced in 1965 by Diamond Shamrock Corp. and was first registered in 1966 for use on turfgrass within the United States. An additional registration was granted 4 years later for use on potatoes, marking it the first approved food crop for application (US EPA 1999). It is formulated as concentrates, powders, and granules, among other registered formulations. Some of the prominent products containing chlorothalonil as the active ingredient include Bravo®, Daconil® and Sweep® (US EPA 1999). These or other chlorothalonil formulations have been applied to crops such as celery, beans, peanuts, and peaches, among others. Within the USA, approximately 34% of the total chlorothalonil applied is used on peanuts, 12% on potatoes and 10% on golf courses (US EPA 1999).
KeywordsReductive Dechlorination Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Mallard Duck Volatilization Flux Major Degradation Pathway
Support was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Branch of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR), California Environmental Protection Agency, under contract No. 10-C0102. The statements and conclusions are those of the authors and not necessarily those of CDPR. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with materials reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products. Special thanks to Kean Goh for his assistance.
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