Heavy-Metal-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species: Phytotoxicity and Physicochemical Changes in Plants

  • Muhammad Shahid
  • Bertrand Pourrut
  • Camille Dumat
  • Muhammad Nadeem
  • Muhammad Aslam
  • Eric PinelliEmail author
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 232)


Environmental contamination by hazardous environmental pollutants is a widespread and increasingly serious problem confronting society, scientists, and regulators worldwide (Debenest et al. 2010; Hajeb et al. 2011; Nanthi and Bolan 2012; Shahid et al. 2013a). Among these pollutants, the heavy metals, are a loosely-defined group of elements that are similar in that they all exhibit metallic properties, and have atomic masses >20 (excluding the alkali metals) and specific gravities >5 (Rascio and Navari-Izzo 2011). This group mainly includes transition metals, some metalloids, and the lanthanides and actinides. Heavy metals can be toxic to plants, animals and humans, even at very low concentrations. Heavy metals are natural components of the earth’s crust and are present in different concentrations at different sites (Shahid et al. 2012a).


Reactive Oxygen Species Heavy Metal Lipid Peroxidation Reactive Oxygen Species Production NADPH Oxidase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan ( and the French Society for Export of Educative Resources (SFERE, for the scholarship granted to M. Shahid.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Shahid
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Bertrand Pourrut
    • 4
  • Camille Dumat
    • 2
    • 3
  • Muhammad Nadeem
    • 1
  • Muhammad Aslam
    • 1
  • Eric Pinelli
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCOMSATS Institute of Information TechnologyVehariPakistan
  2. 2.INP-ENSATUniversité de ToulouseCastanet-TolosanFrance
  3. 3.EcoLab (Laboratoire d’écologie fonctionnelle)INP-ENSAT, UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPSCastanet-TolosanFrance
  4. 4.LGCgE, Equipe Sols et Environnement, ISALille CedexFrance

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