A Comparison of χ2 Metrics for the Assessment of Relational Similarities in Affiliation Networks

  • Maria Rosaria D’Esposito
  • Domenico De StefanoEmail author
  • Giancarlo Ragozini
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization book series (STUDIES CLASS)


Factorial techniques are widely used in Social Network Analysis to analyze and visualize networks. When the purpose is to represent the relational similarities, simple correspondence analysis is the most frequent used technique. However, in the case of affiliation networks, its use can be criticized because the involved χ 2 distance does not adequately reflect the actual relational patterns. In this paper we perform a simulation study to compare the metric involved in Correspondence Analysis with respect to the one in Multiple Correspondence Analysis. Analytical results and simulation outcomes show that Multiple Correspondence Analysis allows a proper graphical appraisal of the underlying two-mode relational structure.


Affiliation networks Correspondence analysis Social network analysis Two-mode structural equivalence 


  1. Agneessens, F., & Everett, M. G. (2013). Introduction to the special issue on advances in two-mode social networks. Social Networks, 35, 145–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borgatti, S. P., & Everett, M. G. (1997). Network analysis of 2-mode data. Social Networks, 19, 243–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burt, R. S. (1980). Models of network structure. Annual Review of Sociology, 6, 79–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Faust, K. (2005). Using correspondence analysis for joint displays of affiliation networks. In P. J. Carrington, J. Scott, & S. Wasserman (Eds.), Models and methods in social network analysis pp. 117–147. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Greenacre, M. (1984). Theory and applications of correspondence analysis. London: Academic.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Pizarro, N. (2007). Structural identity and equivalence of individuals in social networks: Beyond duality. International Sociology, 22(6), 767–792.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Roberts, J. M. Jr. (2000). Correspondence analysis of two-mode network data. Social Networks, 22, 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Rosaria D’Esposito
    • 1
  • Domenico De Stefano
    • 2
    Email author
  • Giancarlo Ragozini
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Economics and StatisticsUniversity of SalernoFiscianoItaly
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsCa’ Foscari University of VeniceVeneziaItaly
  3. 3.Department of Political SciencesFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly

Personalised recommendations