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Role of Omega-6 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Chapter
Part of the AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series book series (AAPS, volume 12)

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. IBD is occurring with increasing frequency among Western populations and is emerging in countries that have traditionally had a low prevalence of the component diseases. IBD is a multifactorial, heterogeneous disease that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals in response to environmental and immunological factors associated with a dysregulated intestinal mucosal immunological response. The increase in incidence of IBD parallels the increase in dietary intake of omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids and the change in balance of intake of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Experimental data suggest that high intake of n-6 fatty acids may contribute to the development and severity of IBD through increased synthesis and membrane incorporation of arachidonic acid (ARA) with the accompanying production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and increased oxidative stress in n-6 fatty acid rich membranes. Conversely, the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) partly replace ARA in cell membranes and are metabolized to weaker pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and to strong pro-resolving mediators with roles in inflammation cessation. Consequently, high dietary n-6 fatty acid intake and high n-6–n-3 fatty acid ratios may be an important environmental modifier that contributes to the development of IBD in genetically susceptible individuals, while increased intake of n-3 fatty acids may lower risk of IBD and could be therapeutic.

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Ulcerative Colitis Fatty Acid Intake Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Epithelial Barrier Integrity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, British Columbia’s Children’s Hospital and Child and Family Research InstituteUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Southampton, Institute of Developmental Sciences BuildingSouthamptonUK
  3. 3.National Institute for Health Research, Southampton Biomedical Research CentreUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  4. 4.University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation TrustSouthamptonUK

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