ICBT for Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia: From the Computer at Home to Real-Life ‘In Vivo’ Exposure

  • Wouter van BallegooijenEmail author
  • Britt Klein
  • Nils Lindefors


Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A) is a disabling disorder that involves physical anxiety symptoms, maladaptive cognitions and avoidance behaviour. Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) can provide accessible mental health care to those who suffer from PD/A, which may increase the uptake of psychological treatment. The literature on ICBT for PD/A shows largely positive results, especially for therapist-guided ICBT among the general population. Unguided ICBT for PD/A is less studied. It has also demonstrated positive results, but is commonly associated with higher attrition than guided ICBT. There is also some evidence that guided ICBT for PD/A is effective for inpatients. Cost-effectiveness of ICBT for PD/A has only been minimally studied, but some evidence indicates it can be cost saving compared with face-to-face CBT. This chapter further describes the existing ICBT programmes for PD/A, a case study and implementation examples from Sweden and Australia. Finally, this chapter discusses the feasibility of minimally guided ICBT and current innovations in ICBT for PD/A, such as the use of mobile technology and virtual reality, and provides future directions for research and development.


Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Social Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder Panic Attack Cognitive Restructuring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wouter van Ballegooijen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Britt Klein
    • 2
  • Nils Lindefors
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and PsychiatryVrije Universiteit Amsterdam/GGZ inGeestAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyFederation UniversityMount HelenAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetSolnaSweden

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