Advertisement

Self-Conscious Emotions in Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures: A Contrastive Linguistic Perspective

  • Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk
  • Paul A. Wilson
Chapter
Part of the Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics book series (YCLP, volume 2)

Abstract

The present paper focuses on linguistic and culture-bound aspects of the properties of individualism and collectivism through an English-Polish analysis of the emotions shame and guilt. Combining theoretical analyses with the analysis of authentic data, this work breaks new ground in cognitive-based language analysis in its pragmatic setting and attempts to shed new light on complex issues pertaining to cultural identities. The study presents an investigation on language corpus materials of English and Polish and furthermore it enriches the methodology with questionnaire-based (GRID) data of English and Polish, identifying cross-linguistic similarities and differences between the relevant dimensions and components with respect to shame and guilt. The corpus data used in previous studies show a stronger emphasis on self-construal at the individual level of identity with the Polish users, while the English users were presented to attend to a larger extent to the relational self derived from the interactional relations with others . The present study provides strong additional support for a more refined model of both collectivism and individualism and further elaborates on the assumptions of a contrastive analysis of self-conscious emotions.

Keywords

Collectivism Cross-linguistic analysis English Culture guilt Individualism Polish shame 

References

  1. Bednarek, M. (2008). Emotion talk across corpora. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beer, J. S. (2007). Neural systems for self-conscious emotions and their underlying appraisals. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 53–67). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  3. Buss, A. H. (2001). Psychological dimensions of the self. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Choi, I., Nisbett, R. E., & Norenzayan, A. N. (1999). Causal attribution across cultures: Variation and universality. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dziwirek, K., & Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (2009). Love and hate – Unique transitive emotions in Polish and English. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczy & K. Dziwirek (Eds.), Studies in cognitive corpus linguistics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  7. Dziwirek, K., & Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (2010). Complex emotions and grammatical mismatches. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ellsworth, P. C., & Scherer, K. R. (2003). Appraisal processes in emotion. In R. J. Davidson, K. R. Scherer, & H. Goldsmith (Eds.), Handbook of affective sciences (pp. 572–595). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Fillmore, C. (1977). Frames-and-scenes semantics. In A. Zampolli (Ed.), Linguistic structures processing (pp. 55–81). Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  10. Fontaine, J. R. J., Scherer, K. R., & Soriano, C. (2013). Components of emotional meaning: A sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gilbert, M. A. (1997). Prolegomenon to a pragmatics of emotion. Proceedings of the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation, Brock University, St. Catherine’s. Accessed at: www.yorku.ca/gilbert/argthry/argthry/arg…/mag1997-prol-emo.pd
  12. Goffman, E. (1955). On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements in social interaction. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes, 18, 213–231.Google Scholar
  13. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Hui, H., C. (1988). Measurement of individualism–collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 17–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Izard, C. E., Fantauzzo, C. A., Castle, J. M., Haynes, M. O., Rayias, M. F., & Putnam, P. H. (1995). The ontogeny and significance of infants’ facial expressions in the first 9 months of life. Developmental Psychology, 31(6), 997–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keltner, D., & Buswell, B. N. (1997). Embarrassment: Its distinct form and appeasement functions. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 250–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and emotion: Language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Levenson, R. W. (1999). The intrapersonal functions of emotion. Cognition and Emotion, 13(5), 481–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (2012). Approximative spaces and the tolerance threshold in communication. International Journal of Cognitive Linguistics, 2(2), 2–19.Google Scholar
  20. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (in press). English and Polish self-projection in the internet comments of sports events. In B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, M. Kopytowska, J. Osborne, J. Schmied, & K. Yumlu (Eds.), Languages, cultures, media. Chambery: University of Savoy Press.Google Scholar
  21. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B., & Dziwirek, K. (2009). Studies in cognitive corpus linguistics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  22. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B., & Wilson, P. A. (2013). English fear and Polish strach in contrast: GRID approach and cognitive corpus linguistic methodology. In J. R. J. Fontaine, K. R. Scherer, & C. Soriano (Eds.), Components of emotional meaning: A sourcebook (pp. 425–436). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B., & Wilson, P. A. (in preparation). Emotions in Contrast. Google Scholar
  24. Lewis, M. (1995). Embarrassment: The emotion of self-exposure and evaluation. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions: The psychology of shame, guilt, embarrassment, and pride (pp. 198–218). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  25. Lewis, M. (2008). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. Feldman Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 742–756). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  26. Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Stanger, C., & Weiss, M. (1989). Self development and self-conscious emotions. Child Development, 60, 146–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 20, 568–579.Google Scholar
  28. Morris, M. W., & Peng, K. (1994). Culture and cause: American and Chinese attributions for social and physical events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 949–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Niedenthal, P. M., Krauth-Gruber, S., & François, R. (2006). Psychology of emotion. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  30. Ogarkova, A., Soriano, C., & Lehr, C. (2012). Naming feeling: Exploring the equivalence of emotion terms in five European languages. In P. A. Wilson (Ed.), Dynamicity in emotion concepts. Lodz studies in language, volume 27 (pp. 247–333). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  31. Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 3–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pęzik, P. (2013). Paradygmat Dystrybucyjny w Badaniach Frazeologicznych. Powtarzalność, Reprodukcja i Idiomatyzacja. Metodologie Językoznawstwa. Ewolucja Języka, Ewolucja Teorii Językoznawczych. Piotr Stalmaszczyk (red.). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.Google Scholar
  33. Pęzik, P. (2014). Graph-based analysis of collocational profiles. In V. Jesensek (Ed.), EUROPHRAS - 2012 Maribor. Phraseology and culture. Abstracts. Maribor: Filozofska fakulteta.Google Scholar
  34. Przepiórkowski, A., Bańko, M., Górski, R., & Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, B. (Eds.). (2012). Narodowy Korpus Języka Polskiego. Warszawa: PWN.Google Scholar
  35. Reips, U.-D. (2002). Standards for internet-based experimenting. Experimental Psychology, 49, 243–256.Google Scholar
  36. Scherer, K. R. (2005). What are emotions? And how can they be measured? Social Science Information, 44, 693–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartz, S. H. (1990). Individualism–collectivism: Critique and proposed refinements. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21, 139–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shaver, P., Schwartz, J., Kirson, D., & O’Connor, C. (1987). Emotion knowledge: Further exploration of a prototype approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1061–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance: Communication and cognition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. (2007). What’s moral about the self-conscious emotions? In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 21–37). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  41. Tracy, J. L., & Robins, R., W. (2004). Putting the self into self-conscious emotions: A theoretical model. Psychological Inquiry, 15, 103–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tracy, J. L., Robins, R. W., & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.). (2007). The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  44. Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and personality. Journal of Personality, 69, 907–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wallbott, H. G., & Scherer, K. R. (1995). Cultural determinants in experiencing shame and guilt. In J. P. Tangney & K. W. Fischer (Eds.), Self-conscious emotions (pp. 465–487). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  46. Waterman, A. S. (1984). The psychology of individualism. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  47. Wierzbicka, A. (1992). Semantics, culture, and cognition: Universal human concepts in culture-specific configurations. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language, and “cultural scripts”. In S. Kitayama & H. Markus (Eds.), Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 130–198). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  49. Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across languages and cultures: Diversity and universals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Corpora

  1. English Microconcord and Longman SamplersGoogle Scholar
  2. Polish PELCRA SamplersGoogle Scholar
  3. The British National Corpus (BNC ): http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ (100 million word collection of samples of written and spoken language from a wide range of sources, designed to represent a wide cross-section of current British English, both spoken and written).
  4. The National Corpus of Polish nkjp.plGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk
    • 1
  • Paul A. Wilson
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of English StudiesUniversity of LodzLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations