War Experiences and Gendered Responses to Post Conflict Reintegration: The Case of Lira District in Northern Uganda

  • Deborah MulumbaEmail author
  • Victoria Flavia Namuggala
Part of the Advances in African Economic, Social and Political Development book series (AAESPD)


The chapter discusses war and post conflict experiences and gendered responses to reintegration in northern Uganda. It also assesses women’s efforts to contribute to post conflict reconstruction efforts amidst gender inequalities. The chapter arises from a study conducted in Lira district of northern Uganda in 2007. The actor oriented approach and gender analysis provided the analytical framework of the study. Data collection methods were qualitative including focus group discussions, in-depth interviews as well as case studies to better represent experiences and actions. The study findings show breakdown of socio-cultural norms, changing gender relations and reduced influence of local and cultural actors in community organization. The study established that the implementation of post conflict humanitarian programs had inadequate focus towards gender concerns. Despite this, women as actors devised several coping mechanisms in order to deal with the situation. Many of those mechanisms were beneficial but some detrimental to women’s lives. In conclusion, the findings attest to the crucial nature of agency and social networks as necessary for successful reconstruction through providing empowerment tools for women returnees.


Food Ration Humanitarian Agency Petty Trade Post Conflict Uganda Government 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Achieng Roseline (2003) Langa or home away from home? And the social meaning of place by Kikuyu internally displaced women from Bumt forest-Kenya. Paper presented at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology: Research Group on Forced Migration. Accessed 12 May 2013
  2. Aciro C (2006) Women’s experiences and participation in armed conflict in northern Uganda and the challenge of reintegration. MA dissertation, University of Bergen, BergenGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen T, Vlassenroot K (eds) (2010) The lord’s resistance army: myth and reality. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Boserup E (1970) Women’s role in economic development. Earth Scan Publication Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Claussen J, Lotsberg R, Nkutu A, Nordby E (2008) Appraisal of the peace, recovery and development plan for northern Uganda, NORAD Report 25. Retrieved from Norad Web site.
  6. Cohen R (2003) The role of protection in ending displacement. Forced Migr Rev 17:21–23Google Scholar
  7. Dolan C (2002) Collapsing masculinities and weak states: a case study of northern Uganda. In: Cleaver F (ed) Global masculinities, masculinities matter! Men, gender and development. Zed Books, London, pp 57–83Google Scholar
  8. El Jack A (2003) Gender and armed conflict. Bridge Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  9. El-Bushra J (2000) Transforming conflict: some thoughts on a gendered understanding of conflict processes. In: Jacobs S, Jacobson R, Marchbank J (eds) States of conflict: gender, violence and resistance. Zed Books, New York, pp 66–86Google Scholar
  10. FAO (2002) Food insecurity: when people must live with hunger and fear starvation. Retrieved from FAO Corporate Document Depository Web site.
  11. FAO (2008) FAO global information and early warning system on food and agriculture world food programme: FAO/WFP assessment of the impact of 2007 floods on food and agriculture in eastern and northern Uganda. GIEWS Special Report. Retrieved from FAO Web site.
  12. Harrell-Bond BE (1986) Imposing aid: emergency assistance to refugees. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. Integrated Regional Information Networks—IRIN (2009) Central African Republic: the LRA - not finished yet.
  14. Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (2010) Uganda: difficulties continue for returnees and remaining IDPs as development phase begins. A profile of the internal displacement situation. Accessed 20 Apr 2013
  15. International Alert (2010) Changing fortunes: women’s economic opportunities in post war northern Uganda: understanding conflict, building peace. Investing in Peace 3, September 2010Google Scholar
  16. Kabonesa C (2002) Gender relations and women’s rights to land in Uganda. A study of Kabarole district, western Uganda. East Afr J Peace Hum Rights 8:227–249Google Scholar
  17. Kindi IF (2010) Challenges and opportunities for women’s land rights in post conflict northern Uganda. MICROCON research working paper 26. MICROCON, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  18. Long N (2001) Development sociology: actor perspective. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Machanda R (2005). Women’s agency in peace building: gender relations in post conflict reconstruction. Economic and Political Weekly, October 29, pp 4737–4745Google Scholar
  20. Mbaiorem D (2012) LRA victims in Central African republic dream of Kony’s demise. Retrieved from UNHCR Web site.
  21. Moser C (1993) Gender, planning and development: theory, practice and training. Routledge, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mukwana R, Ridderbos K (2008) Uganda’s response to displacement: contrasting policy and practice. Forced Migration Review GP 10 Special Issue 2008Google Scholar
  23. Mulumba D (2005) Gender relations, livelihood security and reproductive health among women refugees in Uganda: the case of Sudanese women in Rhino camp and Kiryandongo refugee settlement. Ph.D. thesis. Wageningen UniversityGoogle Scholar
  24. Omach P (2002) Civil war and internal displacement in northern Uganda: 1986-1998. NURRU Publications, KampalaGoogle Scholar
  25. Smith K (2012) Global humanitarian assistance, Uganda: resources for crisis response, vulnerability and poverty eradication. Retrieved from The Global Humanitarian Assistance Web site.
  26. Soto CR (2009) Tall grass: stories of suffering and peace in northern Uganda. State University Press, MichiganGoogle Scholar
  27. Spitzer H, Twikirize JM (2013) War affected children in northern Uganda: no easy path to normality. Int Soc Work 56:67–79. doi: 10.11177/0020872812459067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Townsend JW (1995) Gender studies: whose agenda? In: Schuurman FJ (ed) Beyond the impasse—new directions in development theory. Zed Books, London, pp 169–186Google Scholar
  29. Walby S (1990) Theorizing patriarchy. Basil Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Women Report (1998) Post conflict reconstruction: a gender perspective. United Nations Economic Commission for AfricaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kyambogo UniversityKampalaUganda
  2. 2.Makerere UniversityKampalaUganda
  3. 3.Arizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations