Skip to main content

CityMobil2: Challenges and Opportunities of Fully Automated Mobility

  • Chapter

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)


The main benefits of road automation will be obtained when cars will drive themselves with or without passengers on-board and on any kind of roads, especially in urban areas. This will allow the creation of new transport services—forms of shared mobility, which will enable seamless mobility from door to door without the need of owning a vehicle. To enable this vision, vehicles will not just need to become “autonomous” when automated; they will need to become part of an Automated Road Transport System (ARTS). The CityMobil2 EC project mission is progressing toward this vision defining and demonstrating the legal and technical frameworks necessary to enable ARTS on the roads. After a thorough revision of the literature which allows us to state that automation will perform its best when it will be full-automation and vehicles will be allowed to circulate in urban environments, the paper identifies where these transport systems perform their best, with medium size vehicle as on-demand transport services feeding conventional mass transits in the suburbs of large cities, on radial corridors as complementary mass transits with large busses and platoons of them and as main public transport for small cities with personal vehicles; then defines the infrastructural requirements to insert safely automated vehicles and transport systems in urban areas. Finally it defines the vehicle technical requirements to do so.


  • ARTS
  • Automated vehicle
  • Road users
  • Infrastructure
  • Safety

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-05990-7_15
  • Chapter length: 16 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-05990-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    The traditional PRT concept is to keep the entire network dedicated and segregated to the point that most PRT networks are conceived on elevated monorails; however the same concept might apply using road lanes unnecessarily fully segregated and this concept has been exploited here.

  2. 2.

    This was among the first clearance valid on public areas in Europe, allowing the system to operate on the final site for test purposes without passengers.

  3. 3.

    CityMobil2 concentrated on roads classified by TRB Highway capacity manual as (C) arterial road (D) urban street (E) collector street and (F) Walkway.

  4. 4.

    Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition database.

  5. 5.

    Such as buildings, vegetation or containers.

  6. 6.

    This actually means that it was agreed with the ARTS manufacturers not to make this requirement mandatory for the demonstration fleets of CityMobil2 and make it so in the draft legal framework the project is preparing for the EC future approval.

  7. 7.

    This system runs on a segregated guide-way and therefore is only partially a reference for CityMobil2’s on-the-road applications.


  1. Marshall JW (2013) NHTSA role in the future of automated vehicles. Paper presentation given Monday, 15 July 2013 at the 2013 AAMVA region I conference in Dover, DE.

  2. SAE (2013) On-road automated vehicle standards committee open meeting, handout: definitions and levels of automation. TRB’s 2nd annual workshop on road vehicle automation, 15–19 July 2013, Stanford University. Available on-line at:

  3. Piao J, McDonald M (2008) Advanced driver assistance systems from autonomous to cooperative approach. Transp Rev: Transnational Transdisciplinary J 28(5):659–684. doi:10.1080/01441640801987825

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Stanton NA, Young MS (1998) Vehicle automation and driving performance. Ergonomics 41(7):1014–1028. doi:10.1080/001401398186568

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Stanton NA, Young MS, Walker GH, Turner H, Randle S (2001) Automating the driver’s control tasks. Int J Cogn Ergon 5(3):221–236

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Young MS, Stanton NA (2007) Back to the future: brake reaction times for manual and automated vehicles. Ergonomics 50(1):46–58. doi:10.1080/00140130600980789

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Young MS, Stanton NA (2007) What’s skill got to do with it? Vehicle automation and driver mental workload. Ergonomics 50(8):1324–1339. doi:10.1080/00140130701318855

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Vander Werf J, Shladover SE, Miller MA, Kourjanskaia N (2002) Effects of adaptive cruise control systems on highway traffic flow capacity. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 1800(1)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Smith BW (2012) Automated vehicles are probably legal in the United States. The Center for Internet and Society, Stanford, 1 Nov 2012

    Google Scholar 

  10. Psaraki V, Pagoni I, Schafer A (2012) Techno-economic assessment of the potential of intelligent transport systems to reduce CO2 emissions. IET Intell Transp Syst 6(4):355–363

    Google Scholar 

  11. Klunder GA, Malone K, Mak J et al (2009) Impact of information and communication technologies on energy efficiency in road transport—final report. TNO report for the European Commission, Delft, The Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  12. Tsugawa S, Kato S (2010) Energy ITS: another application of vehicular communications. IEEE Commun Mag 48:120–126

    Google Scholar 

  13. Davila A (2013) Report on fuel consumption. Deliverable 4.3 of SARTRE European Project, 15 Jan 2013

    Google Scholar 

  14. Cottrel WD, Mikosza O (2008) New-generation personal rapid transit technologies: overview and comparison. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2042:101–108 cat. Public Transportation

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Benmimoun A, Lowson M, Marques A, Giustiniani G, Parent M (2009) Demonstration of advanced transport applications in CityMobil project. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 2110:9–17 cat. Public Transportation

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Parent M (2006) New technologies for sustainable urban transportation in Europe. Transp Res Rec: J Transp Res Board 1986:78–80 cat. Public Transportation

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Alessandrini A, Parent M, Holguin C (2008) Advanced city cars, PRT and cybercars, new forms of urban transportation. In: Proceedings of the transport research arena (TRA) Europe Conference, Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Google Scholar 

  18. Parent M (2009) Cybercars: new technologies for sustainable transport. In: Proceedings of the Transport Research Board conference, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  19. Filippi F, Alessandrini A, Stam D, Chanard T, Janse M (2004) Final evaluation report. Deliverable D6.3, CyberMove EU Project. CityMobil project website:

  20. CITYMOBIL CONSORTIUM (2006) CityMobil evaluation framework. Deliverable D5.1.1 of CityMobil project

    Google Scholar 

  21. CITYMOBIL CONSORTIUM (2010) Field trial B ex-ante evaluation report. Deliverable D5.2.1b of CityMobil project

    Google Scholar 

  22. CITYMOBIL CONSORTIUM (2010) Evaluation report for the ex-ante study. Deliverable D5.3.1b of CityMobil project

    Google Scholar 

  23. CityMobil2 project website:

  24. Koymans A, Llimao S (2013) Functional specifications of vehicles and related services. Deliverable 15.1 of the EC FP5 project CityMobil2

    Google Scholar 

  25. Pace JF et al (2012) Basic fact sheet “urban areas”. Deliverable D3.9 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTa

    Google Scholar 

  26. NHTSA (2012) Traffic safety facts, 2010 data—pedestrians. DOT HS 811 625, Washington DC. Available online:

  27. Pace JF et al (2011) Traffic safety basic facts “pedestrians”. EC FP7 project DaCoTa

    Google Scholar 

  28. Naumann R, Beck L (2013) Motor vehicle traffic-related pedestrian deaths—United States, 2001–2010, Centers for Disease Control and prevention. MMWR 62(15):277–282

    Google Scholar 

  29. van Dijke JP et al (2004) Safe sites and systems. Deliverable 3.2 of the EC FP5 project CyberMove

    Google Scholar 

  30. Giustiniani G, Buccino NM et al (2011) Certification of the CTS. Deliverable of the EC FP6 project CityMobil, p 9

    Google Scholar 

  31. Huang S, Yang J, Eklund F (2008) Evaluation of remote pedestrian sensor system based on the analysis of car-pedestrian accident scenarios. Saf Sci 46(9):1345–1355

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  32. Habibovic A, Davidsson J (2011) Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections. Accid Anal Prev 43(4):1570–1580

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  33. Gandhi T, Trivedi MM (2007) Pedestrian protection systems: issues, survey and challenges. IEEE Trans Int Transp Syst 8(3):413–430

    Google Scholar 

  34. Bly P, Lowson MV (2010) Deliverable of the EC FP6 project CityMobil

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adriano Alessandrini .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Alessandrini, A., Cattivera, A., Holguin, C., Stam, D. (2014). CityMobil2: Challenges and Opportunities of Fully Automated Mobility. In: Meyer, G., Beiker, S. (eds) Road Vehicle Automation. Lecture Notes in Mobility. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-05989-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-05990-7

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)