Hydrogeochemical Characterisation and Evaluation of Seasonal Variation in Groundwater Chemistry in Upper Panda River Basin, India

  • Sangita Dey
  • N. Janardhana Raju
  • Prahlad Ram
  • Janmejoy Singh
Chapter

Abstract

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an important issue in hard rock and semi-arid zones and rapid declining of groundwater supplies are common (Raju and Reddy, 2007). Groundwater is the primary source of water for domestic, agricultural and industrial uses in many countries, and its contamination has been recognised as one of the most serious problems in India (Raju, 2007; Reddy et al., 2010; Raju et al 2009a). Major ion-chemistry of ground water provides the basis to investigate the weathering reactions in the basin (Das and Kaur, 2007; Raju et al., 2011). Each groundwater system, in the area, has a unique chemistry, acquired as a result of chemical alteration of meteoric water recharging the system (Back, 1966; Drever, 1997; Raju, 2012). The assessment of the suitability of groundwater for domestic water supply requires knowledge of the concentrations of inorganic constituents and their comparison with existing standards. Irrigation water quality concerns the amounts of salts present in ground water and their effects on crop growth and development. Since there is no adequate surface water supply, about 80-90 % of drinking and irrigation use is from available groundwater resources and the importance of groundwater utilization has increased at an alarming rate in parts of Panda River basin, Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh (Dey, 2010). Some parts of the study area are facing severe groundwater problems i.e. fluoride contamination which makes the water unfit for human consumption (Raju et al., 2009b). The main objective of the study is to assess spatial distribution of hydrogeochemical parameters and evaluate seasonal variation in groundwater chemistry of the upper Panda River basin, Sonbhadra district of Uttar Pradesh, India.

References

  1. APHA (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  2. Appelo, C.A.J. and Postma, D. (1993). Geochemistry, Groundwater and pollution. A.A.Balkema, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  3. Back, W. (1966). Hydrochemical facies and ground flow patterns in northern part of Atlantic coastal plain. USGS Prof. Paper, 498–A.Google Scholar
  4. Berner, E.K. and Berner, R.A. (1987). The global water cycle. Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.Google Scholar
  5. BIS (1991). Bureau of Indian Standards – Indian standard specification for drinking water. IS:10500.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, G.H., Sharp, M.J. and Tranter, M. (1996). Subglacial chemical erosion: Seasonal variations in solute provenance, Haunt Glaciard Arolla, Valais, Switzerland. Ann. Glaciol., 22: 25–31.Google Scholar
  7. Das, B.K. and Kaur, P. (2007). Geochemistry of surface and subsurface waters of Rewalsar Lake, Mandi district, Himachal Pradesh: Constraints on weathering and erosion. J. Geol. Soc. India, 69(5): 1020-1030.Google Scholar
  8. Davis, S.N. and De Wiest, R.J.M. (1966). Hydrogeology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Dey, S. (2010). Hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies with reference to fluoride contamination in the Panda River Basin, Sonbhadra district, Uttar Pradesh, India. Unpubl. Ph.D thesis, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.Google Scholar
  10. Drever, J.I. (1997). The geochemistry of natural waters. 3rd edn. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  11. Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied hydrogeology. 3rd edn. Macmillan College Publication, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Garrels, R.M. and Christ, C.L. (1965). Solutions, minerals and equilibria. Freeman, Cooper, San Franciso.Google Scholar
  13. Jalali, M. (2007). Salinization of groundwater in arid and semarid zones: An example from Tajarak, western Iran. Env. Geol., 22: 1133–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karanth, K.R. (1989). Hydrogeology. Tata McGraw Hill Publication Ltd., New Delhi.Google Scholar
  15. Krothe, N.C. and Oliver, J.W. (1982). Sulfur isotopic composition and water chemistry from the high plains aquifers, Oklahoma panhandle and southwestern Kansas. US Geol. Surv. Wat. Res. Investigation, 82(12): 1.Google Scholar
  16. Nesbit, H.W. and Young, G.M. (1982). Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299: 715–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nesbit, H.W. and Young, G.M. (1989). Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. Jour. Geol., 97: 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Piper, A.M. (1944). A graphical procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water analysis. Am. Geophys. Union. Trans., 25: 914– 928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pophare, M.A. and Dewalkar, S.M. (2007). Groundwater quality in eastern and south eastern parts of Rajura Tehsil, Chendrapur district, Maharashtra. Gondwana Geological Magazine Special, 11: 119–129.Google Scholar
  20. Raju, N.J. (2007). Hydrogeochemical parameters for assessment of groundwater quality in the upper Gunjanaeru River basin, Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Environ. Geol., 52: 1067–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Raju, N.J. and Reddy, T.V.K. (2007). Environmental and urbanization affect on groundwater resources in pilgrim town of Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Jour. Appl. Geochem., 9(2): 212–223.Google Scholar
  22. Raju, N.J., Ram, P. and Dey, S. (2009a). Groundwater Quality in the lower Varuna River basin, Varanasi district, Uttar Predesh, India. Jour. of Geol. Soc. of India. 73: 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raju, N.J., Dey, S. and Das, K. (2009b). Fluoride contamination in groundwaters of Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh. India Current Science, 96(7): 979–985.Google Scholar
  24. Raju, N.J., Shukla, U.K. and Ram, P. (2011). Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: A fast urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India. Envn. Monit. Asses., 173: 279–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Raju, N.J. (2012). Evaluation of hydrogeochemical processes in the Pleistocene aquifers of middle Ganga Plain, Uttar Pradesh, India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 65: 1291–1308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Raju, N.J., Dey, S., Gossel, W. Wycisk, P. (2012). Fluoride hazard and assessment of groundwater quality in the semi-arid upper Panda River basin, Sonbhadra District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 57(7): 1433–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Reddy, A.G.S., Reddy, D.V., Rao, P.N. and Maruthy Prasad, K. (2010). Hydrogeochemical characterization of fluoride rich groundwater of Wailpalli watershed, Nalgonda district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Envir. Monit. Assess., 171: 561–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Richard, L.A. (1954). Diagonosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. US Department of Agriculture, Hand Book No. 60.Google Scholar
  29. Sawyer, C.N. and McCarty, P.L. (1967). Chemistry for sanitary engineers. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Stallard, R.F. and Edmond, J.M. (1983). Geochemistry of Amazon: 2. The influence of geology and weathering environment on the dissolved load. Jour. Geophys. Res., 88: 9671–9688.Google Scholar
  31. Tijani, M.N. (1994). Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara State, Nigeria. Environmental Geology, 24: 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. WHO (1997). Guidelines for drinking water quality. Vol. 1, Recommendations. 2nd edn. Geneva.Google Scholar
  33. Wilcox, L.V. (1948). Classification and use of irrigation waters. US Department of Agriculture, Washington DC. Circular 962.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sangita Dey
    • 1
  • N. Janardhana Raju
    • 2
  • Prahlad Ram
    • 3
  • Janmejoy Singh
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of GeologyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Central Ground Water BoardFaridabadIndia
  4. 4.National Geophysical Research InstituteHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations