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Effect of Ozone on Biotic Stress Tolerance Potential of Wheat

  • Usha MinaEmail author
  • Rashmi Aggarwal
  • Parimal Sinha
  • Arti Bhatia
  • Anshul Fuloria
Chapter

Abstract

Ozone (O3) is generated as an air pollutant in the troposphere in a photochemical reaction by the action of sunlight on volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen emitted by vehicles and industry. O3 concentration in troposphere is rising at an annual rate of 0.5 % (IPCC, 2007) over its background concentration of 10–20 ppb. According to IPCC 4th assessment report (2007), current tropospheric O3 concentrations over the northern hemisphere in summers are about 30–40 ppb and are expected to rise upto 70 ppb in 2100. Elevated levels of O3 present in troposphere are phytotoxic and directly affects plants by reacting with apoplastic leaf components and forming reactive oxygen species (ROS) like hydroxyl (OH), peroxyl (OH2−) and superoxide (O2 ) radicals (Fiscus et al., 2005). This oxidative burst causes loss of photosynthetic activity and reduced growth and yield of crops (Fiscus et al., 2005). Economic crop losses due to O3 were equivalent to $17-$82 million in US, 310 million euros in Netherlands and $ 2 billion in China (Mauzerall and Wang, 2001). In India also O3 phytotoxic impacts on growth and yield of several crops were reported (Varshney and Rout, 1998, Tiwari et al., 2005; Mina et al., 2010). O3 also influences plant’s susceptibility to biotic stress such as pathogens which causes diseases. Plants have innate mechanisms to protect them from various abiotic and biotic stresses. However the dual stress imposed by O3 and pathogen affects tolerance of crop and leads to altered host pathogen interaction (Fuhrer, 2003). Alteration in pathogenesis potential of pest due to O3 exposure is of ecological and economical importance.

Keywords

Wheat Plant Chitinase Activity Ascorbic Acid Content Spot Blotch Uninoculated Plant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

Financial support from the Indian Council for Agricultural Research is gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Capital Publishing Company 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha Mina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rashmi Aggarwal
    • 2
  • Parimal Sinha
    • 2
  • Arti Bhatia
    • 1
  • Anshul Fuloria
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Environment Science and Climate Resilient AgricultureIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant PathologyIndian Agricultural Research InstituteNew DelhiIndia

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