Anthropometric Measurement of North-East Indian Faces for Forensic Face Analysis

  • Kankan Saha
  • Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik
  • Debotosh Bhattacharjee
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 555)


This chapter presents a study of the facial structural differences between the various tribes and non-tribes of the north-eastern region of India. Distances between the various facial feature points are measured using the face images of the newly created database, named as, the Department of Electronics and Information Technology-Tripura University (DeitY-TU) face database. After careful observation of the human facial structure and conducting primary anthropometric measurements, a comparative study between different Mongolian tribes and the non-tribes have been done for face identification through the determination of resemblance, which may be useful in determining the facial characteristics of the criminals and terrorists of the north-eastern region of India, and also for strengthening forensic analysis to stop illegal emigrations.


Mongolian faces north-east Indian faces DeitY-TU face database fiducial point anthropometric measurement forensic application face identification ethnic group detection 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kleinberg, K.F.: Facial anthropometry as an evidential tool in forensic image comparison. Thesis Report, University of Glasgow (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Srivastava, D.: Terrorism & Armed Violence in India - An Analysis of Events in 2008. IPCS Special Report 71, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saha, K., Debnath, R., Bhowmik, M.K., Bhattacharjee, D., Nasipuri, M.: North-East Indian Face Database: Its Design and Aspects. In: 4th International Conference on Advances in Recent Technologies in Communication and Computing (ARTCom 2012). LNEE, pp. 450–456. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saha, K., Saha, P., Bhowmik, M.K., Bhattacharjee, B., Nasipuri, M.: North-East Indian Face Database: Capturing, Performance Evaluation and Application. In: SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 2013, vol. 8659, pp. 86590Q-1–86590Q-6. SPIE Digital Library, San Francisco (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ali, A.N.M.I., Das, I.: Tribal Situation in North East India. Studies on Tribes and Tribals 1(2), 141–148 (2003)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bhagabati, A.C.: Tribal transformation in Assam and North East India: An appraisal of emerging ideological dimensions. Presidential Address, Section of Anthropology and Archaeology. In: 75th Indian Science Congress, Pune. Indian Science Congress Association, Calcutta (1988)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hunter, A.G.: Craniofacial anthropometric analysis in several types of chondrodysplasia. Am. J. Med. Genet. 65, 5–12 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allanson, J.E.: Objective techniques for craniofacial assessment: what are the choices? Am. J. Med. Genet. 70, 1–5 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bishara, S.E., Cummins, D.M., Jorgensen, G.J., Jakobsen, J.R.: A computer assisted photogrammetric analysis of soft tissue changes after orthodontic treatment. Part I: Methodology and reliability. Am. J. Orthod. Dentofacial Orthop 107(6), 633–639 (1995)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farkas, L.G.: Anthropometry on the Head and Face, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Im, S.-W., Kim, H.-J., Lee, M.K., Yi, J.-H., Jargal, G., Sung, J., Cho, S., Kim, J.-I.: Genome-wide linkage analysis for ocular and nasal anthropometric traits in a Mongolian population. Experimental and Molecular Medicine 42(12), 799–804 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Luximon, Y., Ball, R., Justice, L.: The Chinese face: A 3D anthropometric analysis. In: Horvath, I., Mandorli, F., Rusak, Z. (eds.) Proceedings of the TMCE, Ancona, Italy (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hua-ming, L., Ming-quan, Z., Guo-hua, G.: Rapid pose estimation of Mongolian faces using projective geometry. In: 33rd Applied Imagery Pattern Recognition Workshop (AIPR 2004), pp. 171–176. IEEE Computer Society (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ngeow, W.C., Aljunid, S.T.: Craniofacial Anthropometric Norms of Malaysian Indians. Indian J. Dent. Res. 20(3), 313–319 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hajnis, K., Farkas, L.G., Ngim, R.C.K., Lee, S.T., Venkatadri, G.: Racial and ethical morphometric differences in the craniofacial complex. In: Farkas, L.G. (ed.) Anthropometry of the Head and Face, pp. 201–218. Raven Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jahanshahi, M., Golalipour, M.J., Heidari, K.: The effect of ethnicity on facial anthropometry in Northern Iran. Med. J. 49(11), 940 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sohail, A.S.M., Bhattacharya, P.: Detection of Facial Feature Points Using Anthropometric Face Model. In: Signal Processing for Image Enhancement and Multimedia Processing. Multimedia Systems and Applications Series, vol. 31, pp. 189–200 (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Batista, J.P.: Locating Facial Features using an Anthropometric Face Model for Determining the Gaze of Faces in Image Sequences. In: Kamel, M.S., Campilho, A. (eds.) ICIAR 2007. LNCS, vol. 4633, pp. 839–853. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Moreno, L.A., Joyanes, M., Mesana, M.I., Gross, M.G., Gil, C.M., et al.: Harmonization of Anthropometric Measurements for a Multicenter Nutrition Survey in Spanish Adolescents. J. Nutrition 19(6), 481–486 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peacock, C., Goode, A.: Automatic forensic face recognition from digital images. Sci. Justice 44(1), 29–34 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Das, B.M.: Ethnic Affinities of the Rabhas. Gauhati University, Guwahati (1960)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Das, B.M.: Anthropometry of the Tribal groups of Assam, India. In: Field, H. (ed.). Field Research Projects, Coconut Grove (1970)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chaterji, S.K.: Kirata–Jana-Kriti. In: The Asiatic Society, pp. xxii+187 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhagabati, A.C.: Social formation in North East India. Bulletin of the Department of Anthropology VI, 9–29 (1992)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harris, C., Stephens, M.J.: A combined corner and edge detector. In: 4th Alvey Vision Conference, Manchester, UK, pp. 147–151 (1988)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bhowmik, M.K., Majumder, G., Das, A., Saha, K., Bhattacharjee, D.: Human Eye Detection Using Harris Corner Detector. J. Tripura Mathematical Society 14, 16–23 (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gonzalez, R.C., Woods, R.E., Eddins, S.L.: Digital Image Processing Using Matlab. Prentice-Hall, Inc., NJ (2003) ISBN 0130085197Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ramezanpour, M., Azimi, M.A., Rahmati, M.: A New Method for Eye Detection in Color Images. Journal of Advances in Computer Research 1(2), 55–61 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kankan Saha
    • 1
  • Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik
    • 1
  • Debotosh Bhattacharjee
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringTripura University (A Central University)TripuraIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations