Advertisement

Speed-Flow-Density Relationships: The Fundamental Basis of Uninterrupted Flow Analysis

  • Roger P. RoessEmail author
  • Elena S. Prassas
Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads
Part of the Springer Tracts on Transportation and Traffic book series (STTT, volume 5)

Abstract

Speed-flow-density relationships are commonly calibrated to what are referred to as “ideal” or “base” conditions. The latter term is most commonly used in recent years, as the word “ideal” carries a quality connotation that is not necessarily accurate.

It is, however, important to know what the base conditions are, as highway capacity analysis methodologies most often apply various adjustment factors (Chapter 4) to the characteristics depicted for the defined base conditions.

Keywords

Traffic Flow Transportation Research Traffic Stream Public Road Transportation Research Record 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Report(s) of the Committee on Highway Traffic Analysis. In: Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, vols. 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, & 9. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McLean, J.R.: Two-Lane Highway Traffic Operations: Theory and Practice, Transportation Studies, vol. 11. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York (1989)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, A.N.: Maryland Aerial Study of Highway Traffic Between Baltimore and Washington. In: Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, vol. 8, p. 108. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1928)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Johannesson, S.: Highway Economics. McGraw-Hill, New York (1931)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dougherty, N.W.: Roads and Streets, vol. 70 (September 1930)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greenshields, B.D.: The Photographic Method of Studying Traffic Behavior. In: Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, vol. 13. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1934)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenshields, B.D.: A Study of Traffic Capacity. In: Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, vol. 14. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1935)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Highway Capacity Manual, Bureau of Public Roads. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington DC (1950)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greenberg, H.: An Analysis of Traffic Flow. Operations Research. Operations Research Society of America 7(1) (January-February 1959)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lighthill, M.J., Whitham, G.B.: On Kinematic Waves II. In: Proceedings of the Royal Society: Series A, vol. 229(317). Royal Society Publishing, London (1955)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Underwood, R.T.: Speed, Volume, and Density Relationships. In: Quality of Traffic Flow: a Symposium. Yale Bureau of Highway Traffic, New Haven (1961)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Normann, O.K.: Results of Highway Capacity Studies. Public Roads 23(4) (June 1942)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Edie, L.: Car-Following and Steady-State Theory for Non-Congested Travel. Operations Research 9(1) (January-February 1961)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gazis, D.C., Herman, R., Potts, R.: Car-Following Theory of Steady-State Traffic Flow. Operations Research 7 (1959)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellis, R.: Analysis of Linear Relationships in Speed-Density and Speed-Occupancy Curves. Research Report. Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (1964) (unpublished)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Drake, J.S., Schofer, J.L., May Jr., A.D.: A Statistical Analysis of Speed-Density Hypotheses. Highway Research Record 154. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1967)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Highway Capacity Manual, 2nd edn., Special Report 87. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1965)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    May Jr., A.D.: Traffic Characteristics and Phenomena on High-Density Controlled Access Facilities. Traffic Engineering 31(6) (March 1961)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keefer, L.E.: The Relation Between Speed and Volume on Urban Streets. Presented at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board, Quality of Urban Traffic Committee. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1958) (unpublished)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Webb, G.M., Moskowitz, K.: California Freeway Capacity Study – 1956. Proceedings of the Highway Research Board, No. 36. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1957)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schwender, H.S., Normann, O.K., Granum, J.O.: New Methods of Ca-pacity Determination for Rural Roads in Mountainous Terrain. Highway Research Bulletin 167. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1957)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Highway Capacity Manual, 3rd edn., Special Report 209. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1985)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roess, R.P., McShane, W.R., Linzer, E., Pignataro, L.J.: Freeway Capacity Analysis Procedures, Final Report, Project No. DOT-FH-11-9336, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, NY (May 1978)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abramson, P., Amster, G.: Testing and Evaluating Deterministic Models of Traffic Flow, Airborne Instruments Laboratory, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington DC (November 1968)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Southern State Parkway Improvement Study, HNTB, Jones Beach Parkway Authority, Long Island, NY (April 1977)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Roess, R.P., McShane, W.R., Pignataro, L.J.: Freeway Level of Ser-vice: A Revised Approach. Transportation Research Record 699. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1979)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hurdle, V., Datta, P.: Speeds and Flows on an Urban Freeway: Some Measurements and a Hypothesis. Transportation Research Record 905. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1983)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reilly, W., Harwood, D., Schoen, J.: Capacity and Level of Service Pro-cedures for Multilane Rural and Suburban Highways, Final Report, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 3-43. JHK & Associates, Tucson (January 1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pfefer, R.: New First Chapter of the Highway Capacity Manual. ITE Journal (September 1992)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hall, F.L., Hurdle, V., Banks, J.H.: A Synthesis of Recent Work on the Nature of Speed-Flow and Flow-Occupancy (or Density) Relationships on Freeways. Transportation Research Record 1365. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1992)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Agyemang-Duah, K., Hall, F.L.: Some Issues Regarding the Numerical Value of Freeway Capacity. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Highway Capacity. Karlsruhe, Germany (1991)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Urbanik, T., Hinshaw, W.: Evaluation of High-Volume Urban Texas Freeways. Transportation Research Record 1320. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1991)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hall, F.L., Hall, L.M.: Capacity and Speed-Flow Analysis of the Queen Elizabeth Way in Ontario. Transportation Research Record 1287. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1990)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Banks, J.H.: Flow Processes at a Freeway Bottleneck. Transportation Research Record 1287. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC (1990)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gilchrist, R.S., Hall, F.L.: Three-Dimensional Relationships Among Traffic Flow Theory Variables. Transportation Research Record 1225. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1989)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Persaud, N., Hurdle, V.: Some New Data That Challenge Old Ideas About Speed-Flow Relationships. Transportation Research Record 1194. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1988)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gunter, M.A., Hall, F.L.: Transitions in the Speed-Flow Relationship. Transportation Research Record 1091. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1986)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hall, F.L., Gunter, M.A.: Further Analysis of the Flow-Concentration Relationship. Transportation Research Record 1091. Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (1986)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hall, F.L.: An Interpretation of Speed-Flow-Concentration Relationships Using Catastrophe Theory. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (January 1986) (preprint)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hall, F.L., Allen, B.L., Gunter, M.A.: Empirical Analysis of Freeway Flow-Density Relationships. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington DC (January 1985) (preprint)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schoen, J., May Jr., A.D., Reilly, W., Urbanik, T.: Speed-Flow Relationships for Basic Freeway Segments, Final Report, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Project 3-45. JHK & Associates, Tucson (May 1995)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brilon, W.: 1 Curve or 3 Linear Segments for the v-q Curve? unpublished notes to members of the HCQSC (July 2009)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Brilon, W., Ponzlet, M.: Applications of Traffic Flow Models. In: Proceeding of the Workshop on Traffic and Granular Flow, Juelich, Germany. World Scientific Publishing (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EmeritusNYU Polytechnic School of EngineeringNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Transportation EngineeringNYU Polytechnic School of EngineeringNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations