Nanomanufacturing and sustainability: opportunities and challenges

  • Ahmed A. BusnainaEmail author
  • Joey Mead
  • Jacqueline Isaacs
  • Sivasubramanian Somu


New nanomanufacturing technologies, although still in research labs, present a great opportunity to drastically reduce the cost of making nanostructures on a large scale and at high-rates. Such new bottom-up directed assembly-based approaches involve adding materials selectively thereby both reducing waste and the number of required processes. Directed assembly-based processes are conducted at room pressure and temperatures which significantly reduces the cost of nanomanufacturing equipment and tools, ensuring long-term sustainability by reducing energy, consumables, and waste costs. This paradigm shift in nanomanufacturing will unleash not only a wave of creativity in sustainable nanomanufacturing but lessons learnt along the way can be used in various other sectors. Along with the exquisite technological promise that nanotechnology holds, nano-enabled products are heralded as a means for energy and resource reduction, resulting in potential manufacturing cost reductions and further, for potential improvements to environmental remediation. Sustainable nanomanufacturing will, by dramatically lowering current nanomanufacturing barriers, spur innovation, and the creation of entirely new industries by leveling the playing and ultimately leading to the democratization of nanomanufacturing.


Nanomanufacturing Sustainability Directed assembly Nanomaterials 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahn JH, Kim HS, Lee KJ, Jeon S, Kang SJ, Sun Y, Nuzzo RG, Rogers JA (2006) Heterogeneous three-dimensional electronics by use of printed semiconductor nanomaterials. Science 314:1754–1757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen AC, Sunden E, Cannon A, Graham S, King W (2006) Nanomaterial transfer using hot embossing for flexible electronic devices. Appl Phys Lett 88:083112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen Z, Cao G, Lin Z, Koehler I, Bachmann PK (2006) A self-assembled synthesis of carbon nanotubes for interconnects. Nanotechnology 17:1062–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen CL, Yang CF, Agarwal V, Sonkusale S, Busnaina A, Chen M, Dokmeci M R (2009) SS-DNA-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes integrated on CMOS circuitry for high sensitivity gas sensing. In: Solid-state sensors, actuators and microsystems conference, Transducers 2009 International pp.1477–1480Google Scholar
  5. Chen CL, Yang CF, Agarwal V, Kim T, Sonkusale S, Busnaina A, Chen M, Dokmeci MR (2010) DNA-decorated carbon-nanotube-based chemical sensors on complementary metal oxide semiconductor. Nanotechnology 21(9):095504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiota J, Shearer J, Wei M, Barry C, Mead J (2009) Multiscale directed assembly of polymer blends using chemically functionalized nanoscale-patterned templates. Small 5:2788–2791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dahlben LJ, Eckelman MJ, Hakimian A, Somu S, Isaacs JA (2013) Environmental life cycle assessment of a carbon nanotube-enabled semiconductor device. Environ Sci Technol. doi: 10.1021/es305325y Google Scholar
  8. Davis SA, Breulmann M, Rhodes KH, Zhang B, Mann S (2001) Template-directed assembly using nanoparticle building blocks: a nanotectonic approach to organized materials. Chem Mater 13:3218–3226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Eckelman MJ, Mauter M, Isaacs JA, Elimelech M (2012) New perspectives on nanomaterial aquatic ecotoxicity production impacts equal direct exposure impacts for carbon nanotubes. Environ Sci Technol 46:2902–2910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ernst J (2012) Printed electronics memory: challenges of logic and integration. EDN Network Accessed 9 Apr 2012
  11. Fang L, Wei M, Barry C, Mead J (2010) Effect of spin speed and solution concentration on the directed assembly of polymer blends. Macromolecules 43:9747–9753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jaber-Ansari L, Hahm M, Kim T, Somu S, Busnaina A, Jung Y (2009a) Large scale highly organized SWNTs networks for electrical devices. Appl Phys A96:373–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jaber-Ansari L, Hahm M, Somu S, Echegoyen Y, Busnaina A, Jung YJ (2009b) Mechanism of very large scale assembly of SWNTs in template guided fluidic assembly process. JACS 131:804–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim S, Wu J, Carlson A, Jin SH, Kovalsky A, Glass P, Liud Z, Ahmede NN, Elgane SL, Chen FW, Ferreirae PM, Sittig M, Huangb Y, Rogers JA (2010) Microstructured elastomeric surfaces with reversible adhesion and examples of their use in deterministic assembly by transfer printing. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:17095–17100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kumar A, Wei M, Barry CMF, Orroth S, Busnaina A, and Mead J (2008) Transfer of template patterned carbon nanotubes to a polymer surface using the thermoforming process. In: Society of plastics engineers annual technical conferenceGoogle Scholar
  16. Li B, Jung HY, Wang H, Kim YL, Kim T, Hahm M, Busnaina A, Upmanyu M, Jung YJ (2011a) Ultra-thin SWNTs films with tunable, anisotropic transport Properties. Adv Funct Mater 2:1810–1815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li B, Hahm MG, Kim YL, Kar HS, Jung YJ (2011b) Highly organized two- and three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotubes-polymer hybrid architectures. ACS Nano 5:4826–4834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Makaram P, Somu S, Xiong X, Busnaina A, Jung YJ, McGruer N (2007a) Scalable nanotemplate assisted directed assembly of single walled carbon nanotubes for nanoscale devices. Appl Phys Lett 90:243108–243111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Makaram P, Selvarasah S, Xiong X, Chen C-L, Busnaina A, Khanduja N, Dokmeci MR (2007b) Three-dimensional assembly of single-walled carbon nanotube interconnects using dielectrophoresis. Nanotechnology 18:395204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Murashov V, Howard J (eds) (2011) Nanotechnology standards. Springer, Newyork. ISBN: 978-1-4419-7852-3 (Print) 978-1-4419-7853-0 (Online)Google Scholar
  21. Nihei M, Horibe M, Kawabata A, Awano Y (2004) Simultaneous formation of multiwall carbon nanotubes and their end-bonded ohmic contacts to Ti electrodes for future ULSI interconnects. Jpn J Appl Phys 43:1856–1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. NIOSH workplace safety and health topics, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed 5 Jul 2013
  23. OECD Series on the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, Organisation for economic co-operation and development, Accessed 5 Jul 2013
  24. Park SJ, Lazarides AA, Mirkin CA, Letsinger RL (2001) Directed assembly of periodic materials from protein and oligonucleotide-modified nanoparticle building blocks. Angew Chem 113:2993–2996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Polleux J, Pinna N, Antonietti M, Niederberger M (2004) Ligand-directed assembly of preformed titania nanocrystals into highly anisotropic nanostructures. Adv Mater 16:436–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Selvarasah S, Busnaina A, Dokmeci MR (2010) Parylene-C passivated carbon nanotube flexible transistors. Appl Phys Lett 97:153120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Selvarasah S, Busnaina A, Dokmeci MR (2011) Design, fabrication, and characterization of three-dimensional single-walled carbon nanotube assembly and applications as thermal sensors. IEEE Trans Nanotechnol 10:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Somu S, Wang H, Kim Y, Jaberansari L, Hahm M-G, Li B, Kim T, Xiong X, Jung YJ, Upmanyu M, Busnaina A (2010) Topological transitions in carbon nanotube networks via nanoscale confinement. ACS Nano 4:4142–4148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stoykovich MP, Kang HM, Daoulas KC, Liu GL, Liu CC, DiPablo JJ, Muller M, Nealey PF (2007) Directed self-assembly of block copolymers for nanolithography fabrication of Isolated features and essential integrated circuit geometries. ACS Nano 1:168–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vossmeyer T, DeIonno E, Heath JR (1997) Light-directed assembly of nanoparticles. Angew Chem, Int Ed Engl 36:1080–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wei M, Tao Z, Xiong X, Kim M, Lee J, Somu S, Sengupta S, Busnaina A, Barry C, Mead J (2006) Fabrication of patterned conducting polymer on insulating polymeric substrates by electric-field-assisted assembly and pattern transfer. Macromol Rapid Commun 32:1826–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wei M, Fang L, Lee J, Somu S, Xiong X, Barry C, Busnaina A, Mead J (2009) Directed assembly of polymer blends using nanopatterned templates. Adv Mater 21:794–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Xiong X, Makaram P, Bakhtari K, Somu S, Busnaina A, Small J, McGruer N, Park J (2005) Directed assembly of nanoelements using electrostatically addressable templates. Mater Res Soc Symp Proc 901:19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xiong X, Makaram P, Busnaina A, Bakhtari K, Somu S, McGruer N, Park J (2006) Large scale directed-assembly of nanoparticles using nanotrench templates. Appl Phys Lett 89:193108–193111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xiong X, Jaber-Ansari L, Hahm M, Busnaina A, Jung YJ (2007) Building highly organized SWNT networks using template guided assembly. Small 3:2006–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xiong X, Chen C-L, Ryan P, Busnaina AA, Jung YJ, Dokmeci MR (2009) Directed assembly of high-density single-walled carbon nanotube patterns on flexible polymer substrates. Nanotechnology 20:295302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yilmaz C, Kim T-H, Somu S, Busnaina AA (2010) Large scale nanorods nanomanufacturing by electric field directed assembly For nanoscale device applications. IEEE Nano 9:653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zirbs R, Kienberger F, Hinterdorfer P, Binder WH (2005) Directed assembly of Au nanoparticles onto planar surfaces via multiple hydrogen bonds. Langmuir 21:8414–8421CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Busnaina
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joey Mead
    • 2
  • Jacqueline Isaacs
    • 1
  • Sivasubramanian Somu
    • 1
  1. 1.NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center for High-rate NanomanufacturingNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts LowellLowellUSA

Personalised recommendations