Spatial Dimensions of Big Data: Application of Geographical Concepts and Spatial Technology to the Internet of Things

Chapter
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 546)

Abstract

Geography can be considered an important binding principle in the Internet of Things, as all physical objects and the sensor data they produce have a position, dimension, and orientation in space and time, and spatial relationships exist between them. By applying spatial relationships, functions, and models to the spatial characteristics of smart objects and the sensor data, the flows and behaviour of objects and people in Smart Cities can be more efficiently monitored and orchestrated. In the near future, billions of devices with location—and other sensors and actuators become internet connected, and Spatial Big Data will be created. This will pose a challenge to real-time spatial data management and analysis, but technology is progressing fast, and integration of spatial concepts and technology in the Internet of Things will become a reality.

Keywords

Smart City Smart environment Internet of things Sensors Actuators Spatial big data Geographical information systems Positioning Georeferencing Spatial context Spatial relationships Spatial functions Spatial models Location based services Service oriented architecture OGC Sensor web enablement Real-time analysis Event stream processing  Complex event processing Pattern recognition Event driven architecture 

Abbreviations

ADE

Application Domain Extensions

ANPR

Automatic Number Plate Recognition

API

Application Programming Interface

AR

Augmented Reality

CEP

Complex Event Processing

EDA

Event Driven Architecture

ESB

Enterprise Service Bus

ESP

Event Stream Processing

ETL

Extract Transform Load

GGIM

Global Geospatial Information Management

GIS

Geographical Information System

GIS[MYAMP

T] Geographical Information Science and Technology

GML

Geography Markup Language

GPS

Global Positioning System

IDW

Inverse Distance Weighted

IoT

Internet of Things

JSON

Java Script Object Notation

LBS

Location Based Services

LoD

Level Of Detail

NFC

Near Field Communication

OGC

Open Geospatial Consortium

QR

Quick Response

RFID

Radio Frequency IDentification

SOA

Service Oriented Architecture

SEP

Simple Event Processing

SES

Sensor Event Service

SIR

Sensor Instance Registry

SOR

Sensor Observable Registry

SOS

Sensor Observation Service

SPS

Sensor Planning Service

SQL

Structured Query Language

SWE

Sensor Web Enablement

UN

United Nations

UWB

Ultra Wide Band

Notes

Acknowledgments

Writing this chapter would not have been possible without the support of our fellow researchers at the SPINlab of the VU University and our collegues at Geodan. We would like to thank them for their inspiring conversations, discussions, and thoughts on this subject. Further, we are grateful to the copyright owners for the use of figures and texts in this chapter. Finally, we are obliged to Laura Till and Patricia Ellman for taking a careful eye and a sharp pencil to review our material.

Author Biographies Erik van der Zee MSc. has a background in Physical Geography and Business Economics. He works as senior Geo-IT consultant and researcher at Geodan (www.geodan.nl) and is a member of the Geodan Innovation Board. His expertise is in designing and implementing innovative geospatial IT architectures. At SPINlab, he is a researcher on sensor networks, the Internet of Things and Smart Cities. He also supervises PhD students within the EU funded MULTI-POS (http://www.multi-pos.eu) framework, an international initiative with 17 research institutes and associated commercial partners that addresses challenging research topics in the field of location services and technologies.

Prof. Dr. Henk Scholten is head of the SPatial INformation Laboratory (SPINlab, http://www.feweb.vu.nl/gis/spinlab) of the VU University Amsterdam. The SPINlab is a world-leading research centre for Geographical Information Science and Technology at the Department of Spatial Economics of the VU University Amsterdam. He is also CEO and founder of Geodan (www.geodan.nl), one of the largest European companies specialized in geospatial technology and system integration.

Henk Scholten and Erik van der Zee have recently contributed to the UN Global Geospatial Information Management (GGIM) report on the five- to ten-year vision of future trends in geospatial information management.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VU UniversityAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.GeodanAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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