LTE-A Access, Core, and Protocol Architecture for D2D Communication

  • Dimitris Tsolkas
  • Eirini Liotou
  • Nikos Passas
  • Lazaros Merakos


Considering the benefits arisen due to the proximity gain and the plethora of potential applications in modern mobile cellular networks, device-to-device (D2D) communications have currently drawn the interest of academia and standardization bodies. This chapter focuses on the Long Term Evolution—Advanced (LTE-A) system, and deals with open challenges in access, core, and protocol architecture that need investigation prior the adoption of the D2D communications. More specifically, this chapter provides a comprehensive literature review on coexistence issues between D2D and cellular communications, while describes the main D2D scenarios and architectures considered in current efforts for integrating D2D communications in LTE networks. Moving one step further, enhancements at the LTE-A access network are proposed, targeting at enabling centrally-controlled D2D transmissions inside an LTE-A cell.


Device-to-device ProSe communications Direct transmissions LTE-A ProSe architecture D2D enhanced access network 


  1. 1.
    3GPP TS 36.300, v9.9.0, Rel.9, in Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN), overall description, Jan 2013Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    3GPP TR 23.703 v0.5, Rel 12, in Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Study on architecture enhancements to support Proximity Services (ProSe), June 2013Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Huang, V.K.N. Lau, Y. Chen, Spectrum sharing between cellular and mobile ad hoc networks: transmission-capacity trade-off. IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27(7), 1256–1267 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C.H. Yu, K. Doppler, C.B. Ribeiro, O. Tirkkonen, resource sharing optimization for device-to-device communication underlaying cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 10(8), 2752–2763 (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Min, J. Lee, S. Park, D. Hong, Capacity enhancement using an interference limited area for device-to-device uplink underlaying cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 10(12), 3995–4000 (2011)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Min, W. Seo, J. Lee, S. Park, D. Hong, Reliability improvement using receive mode selection in the device-to-device uplink period underlaying cellular networks. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 10(2), 413–418 (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. Kaufman, J. Lilleberg, B. Aazhang, Spectrum sharing scheme between cellular users and ad-hoc device-to-device users. IEEE Trans. Wirel. Commun. 12(3), 1038–1049 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Janis, V. Koivunen, C. Ribeiro, J. Korhonen, K. Doppler, K. Hugl, Interference-aware resource allocation for device-to-device radio underlaying cellular networks. in IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2009), pp. 1–5, 26–29 April 2009Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. Xu, L. Song, Z. Han, Q. Zhao, X. Wang, B. Jiao, Interference-aware resource allocation for device-to-device communications as an underlay using sequential second price auction. in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pp. 445–449, 10–15 June 2012Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    C.H. Yu, O. Tirkkonen, K. Doppler, C. Ribeiro, Power optimization of device-to-device communication underlaying cellular communication. in IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC ‘09), pp. 1–5, 14–18 June 2009Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    X. Xiao, X. Tao, J. Lu, A QoS-aware power optimization scheme in ofdma systems with integrated device-to-device (D2D) communications. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), pp. 1–5, 5–8 Sept 2011Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Jänis, C. Yu, K. Doppler, C. Ribeiro, C. Wijting, K. Hugl, O. Tirkkonen, V. Koivunen, Device-to-device communication underlaying cellular communications systems, Int’l J. Commun. Netw. Sys. Sci. 2(3), 169–178 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    D. Tsolkas, E. Liotou, N. Passas, L. Merakos, A graph-coloring secondary resource allocation for D2D communications in LTE networks. in The 17th IEEE International Workshop on Computer-Aided Modeling Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks (IEEE CAMAD 2012), Barcelona, Spain, Sept 2012Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. Fodor, E. Dahlman, G. Mildh, S. Parkvall, N. Reider, G. Miklós, Z. Turányi, Design aspects of network assisted device-to-device communications. IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(3), 170–177 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. Lei, Z. Zhong, C. Lin, X. Shen, Operator controlled device-to-device communications in LTE-advanced networks. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 19(3), 96–104 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M.S. Corson, R. Laroia, J. Li, V. Park, T. Richardson, G. Tsirtsis, Toward proximity-aware internetworking. IEEE Wirel. Commun. 17(6), 26–33 (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.J. Yang, S.Y. Lim, H.J. Park, N.H. Park, Solving the data overload: Device-to-device bearer control architecture for cellular data offloading. IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 8(1), 31–39 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. Doppler, M. Rinne, C. Wijting, C. Ribeiro, K. Hugl, Device-to-device communication as an underlay to LTE-Advanced networks, IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(12), 42–49 (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. Li, J.B. Song, Z. Han, Network connectivity optimization for device-to-device wireless system with femtocells, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 62(7), 3098–3109 (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Belleschi, G. Fodor, A. Abrardo, Performance analysis of a distributed resource allocation scheme for D2D communications. in IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops 2011 (GC Wkshps), pp. 358–362, 5–9 Dec 2011Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Jung, K. Hwang, S. Choi, Joint mode selection and power allocation scheme for power-efficient device-to-device (D2D) communication. in IEEE 75th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring 2012), pp. 1–5, 6–9 May 2012Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Tsolkas, E. Liotou, N. Passas, L. Merakos, Enabling D2D communications in LTE networks. in IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC) 2013, London, United Kingdom, Sept 2013Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    3GPP TS36.321 v9.6.0, Rel.9, Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA), Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification, March 2012Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.C. Ikuno, M. Wrulich, M. Rupp, System level simulation of LTE networks. in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE 71st Vehicular Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, May 2010. Available at

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitris Tsolkas
    • 1
  • Eirini Liotou
    • 1
  • Nikos Passas
    • 1
  • Lazaros Merakos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations