The Golden Age
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This chapter concerns the study of motion at the end of the XVII century, the period in which mechanical science reached the maturity, even if not yet completeness. The first part of the chapter deals with the evolution of the concept of force near the pre-Newtonian scientists like John Wallis and Christiaan Huygens. The presentation of Isaac Newton’s dynamics follows, with the attention focused on its fundamentals. The main references are to the Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica of 1687, but some manuscripts are referenced also. Particular attention is devoted to the concept of impressed force; also presented is a brief review of the logical status of Newtonian mechanics. The final part of the chapter deals with the contribution by Leibniz, with a brief exposition of his natural philosophy, in particular the concept of living and dead forces. Finally the works of maturity are discussed with some details.