Antennas for GPR Systems

  • Lara PajewskiEmail author
  • Fabio Tosti
  • Wolfgang Kusayanagi
Part of the Springer Transactions in Civil and Environmental Engineering book series (STICEE)


Antennas are a critical hardware component of a radar system, dictating its performance in terms of capability to detect targets. In this Chapter, a wide review on Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) antennas is given. Firstly, the general characteristics of GPR antennas are resumed and the requirements they have to satisfy are listed: these are somehow unique and very different than in conventional radar antennas, since GPR antennas operate in a strongly demanding environment, in close proximity to or at a limited distance from the natural or manmade investigated area. Subsequently, an overview on the most frequently used GPR antennas, for both pulsed and stepped-frequency radar systems, is provided; recent studies concerning innovative solutions are presented and information on antenna arrays for GPR applications is included, as well. The Chapter continues with a census of commercial antennas of a number of GPR manufacturers, where the centre frequencies and general characteristics of the antennas available on the market are schematically organised in tables. Aided by measurements and powerful computer modelling techniques, GPR antenna designers are increasingly able to predict and understand the performance of proposed design in realistic electromagnetic environments: the Chapter includes two sections reviewing techniques for the experimental characterisation and numerical modelling of GPR antennas. Finally, conclusions are drawn and research perspectives in the field of GPR antennas are discussed.


Radiation Pattern Antenna Array Finite Difference Time Domain Spiral Antenna Reconfigurable Antenna 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Authors are grateful to COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) for funding the Action TU1208 “Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar,” supporting this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lara Pajewski
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabio Tosti
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Kusayanagi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringRoma Tre UniversityRomeItaly

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