Exodus 1–15 repeatedly shows familiarity with Egyptian traditions: the biblical motifs of the hidden divine name, turning an inanimate object into a reptile, the conversion of water to blood, a spell of 3 days of darkness, the death of the firstborn, the parting of waters, and death by drowning are all paralleled in Egyptian texts, and, for the most part, nowhere else.


  1. Allen, James P. 2005. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Writings of the Ancient World), vol. 23. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature.Google Scholar
  2. Blackman, A.M., and W.V. Davies. 1988. The Story of King Kheops and the Magicians: Transcribed from Papyrus Westcar (Berlin Papyrus 3033). Reading, MA: J.V. Books.Google Scholar
  3. de Buck, Adriaan. 1935–1961. The Egyptian Coffin Texts. 7 vols. Oriental Institute Publications 34, 49, 64, 67, 73, 81, 87. Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute. http://oi.uchicago.edu/research/pubs/catalog/oip/
  4. Cassuto, Umberto. 1967. A Commentary on the Book of Exodus. (trans. Israel Abrahams). Jerusalem: Magnes.Google Scholar
  5. Cohen, Chaim. 1991. The Other Meaning of Biblical tannin: Snake or crocodile? (in Hebrew). In Sefer Prof. H. M. Y. Gevaryahu: Meḥ qarim ba-Miqra’ u-ve-Maḥ ševet Yiśra’el, 2 vols., ed. Ben-Zion Luria, 75–81. Jerusalem: Ha-Ḥevra le-Ḥeqer ha-Miqra’ be-Yiśra’el.Google Scholar
  6. COS = Hallo, William W., and Younger, K. Lawson. 1997–2002. The Context of Scripture. 3 vols. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  7. Currid, John D. 1997. Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker.Google Scholar
  8. Enmarch, Roland. 2005. The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All. Oxford: Griffith Institute.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2008. A World Upturned: Commentary on and Analysis of The Dialogue of Ipuwer and the Lord of All. Oxford: British Academy / Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Erman, Adolf, and Grapow, Hermann. 1926–1931. Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, 5 vols. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag. http://www.egyptology.ru/lang.htm#Woerterbuch
  11. Eyre, Christopher. 2002. The Cannibal Hymn: A Cultural and Literary Study. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Filer, Joyce M. 2001. Hygiene. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 2, ed. Donald B. Redford, 133–136. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Faulkner, Raymond O. 1969. The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 1973–1978. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts, 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon. Reprinted in one volume, retaining original pagination. Oxford: Aris & Phillips, 2004.Google Scholar
  15. Friedman, Richard E. 2003. The Bible with Sources Revealed. San Francisco, CA: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  16. Gilula, Mordechai. 1977. The Smiting of the First-Born: An Egyptian Myth? Tel-Aviv 4: 94–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Godley, A.D. 1921–1924. Herodotus: The Persian Wars, 4 vols. LCL, vols. 117–120. London//New York: W. Heinemann/G.P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  18. Goedicke, Hans. 1977. The protocol of Neferyt: The prophecy of Neferti. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Green, Lyn. 2001. Hairstyles. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, vol. 2, ed. Donald B. Redford, 73–76. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Griffith, F.Ll. 1900. Stories of the High Priests of Memphis: The Sethon of Herodotus and the Demotic Tales of Khamuas. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  21. ———. 1909. Herodotus II. 90. Apotheosis by drowning. Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 46: 132–134.Google Scholar
  22. Helck, Wolfgang. 1992. Die Prophezeihung des Nfr.tj, 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  23. Hornung, Erik. 1999. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. (trans. David Lorton). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Keel, Othmar. 1997. Corpus der Stempelsiegel-Amulette aus Palästina/Israel, Von den Anfängen bis zur Perserzeit, Band I: Von Tell Abu Farağ bis ʿAtlit. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica 13. Freiburg/Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Freiburg/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2010. Corpus der Stempelsiegel-Amulette aus Palästina/Israel, Von den Anfängen bis zur Perserzeit, Band II: Von Bahan bis Tel Eton. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica 29. Freiburg/Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Freiburg/Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  26. Lepper, Verena M. 2008. Untersuchungen zu pWestcar. Eine philologische und literaturwissenschaftliche (Neu-)Analyse, Band 70. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen.Google Scholar
  27. Lichtheim, Miriam. 1973–1980. Ancient Egyptian Literature, 3 vols. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  28. Lloyd, Alan B. 1976–1988. Herodotus, Book II, 2 vols. Etudes préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l’Empire romain, t. 43. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
  29. Loewenstamm, Samuel E. 1972. The Tradition of the Exodus in Its Development (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Magnes.Google Scholar
  30. Manassa, Colleen. 2007. The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related Texts from the Nectanebid Period. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.Google Scholar
  31. McDowell, A.G. 1999. Village Life in Ancient Egypt: Laundry Lists and Love Songs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Münger, Stefan. 2003. Egyptian Stamp-Seal Amulets and Their Implications for the Chronology of the Early Iron Age. Tel-Aviv 30: 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Noegel, Scott B. 1996. Moses and Magic: Notes on the Book of Exodus. Journal of the Ancient Near Eastern Society 24: 45–59.Google Scholar
  34. Parkinson, R.B. 1997. The Tale of Sinuhe and Other Ancient Egyptian Poems 1940-1640 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Petrie, W. M. Flinders. 1906. Hyksos and Israelite Cities. British School of Archaeology in Egypt, 12. London: School of Archaeology in Egypt.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 1909. Memphis I. British School of Archaeology in Egypt, 14. London: School of Archaeology in Egypt.Google Scholar
  37. Piankoff, Alexandre, and Natacha Rambova. 1954. The Tomb of Ramesses VI. Bollingen series. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  38. Pleyte, Willem, and Rossi, Francesco. 1869–1876. Papyrus de Turin, 2 vols. Museo egizio di Turino. Leiden: E. J. Brill. Reprint: Wiesbaden: LTR-Verlag, 1981 (in a single volume).Google Scholar
  39. Propp, William H.C. 1998. Exodus 1-18. Anchor Bible 2. New York, NY: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  40. Quibell, J.E. 1898. The Ramesseum. Publications of the Egyptian Research Account, vol. 2. London: B. Quaritch.Google Scholar
  41. Quirke, Stephen. 2004. Egyptian Literature 1800 BC: Questions and Readings. London: Golden House.Google Scholar
  42. Rendsburg, Gary A. 1988. The Egyptian Sun-God Ra in the Pentateuch. Henoch 10: 3–15.Google Scholar
  43. ———. 1990. Targum Onqelos to Exod 10:5, 10:15, Numb 22:5, 22:11. Henoch 12: 15–17.Google Scholar
  44. ———. 2003. Beasts or Bugs? Solving the Problem of the Fourth Plague. Bible Review 19/2: 18–23.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 2005. The Genesis of the Bible. In The Blanche and Irving Laurie Chair in Jewish History, 11–30. Separatum published by the Allen and Joan Bildner Center for the Study of Jewish Life, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. http://jewishstudies.rutgers.edu/component/docman/doc_view/117-the-genesis-of-the-bible?Itemid=158
  46. ———. 2006. Moses as Equal to Pharaoh. In Text, Artifact, and Image: Revealing Ancient Israelite Religion, ed. Gary M. Beckman and Theodore J. Lewis, 201–219. Brown Judaic Studies 346. Providence, RI: Brown Judaic Studies.Google Scholar
  47. Ritner, Robert K. 1993. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice. Chicago, IL: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, no. 54.Google Scholar
  48. Rowe, Alan. 1940. Newly-identified Monuments in the Egyptian Museum Showing the Deification of the Dead. Annales du Service de Antiquities de l’Egypte 40: 1–50.Google Scholar
  49. Sarna, Nahum M. 1986. Exploring Exodus. New York, NY: Schocken.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 1991. The JPS Torah Commentary: Exodus. Philadelphia, PA: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  51. Sethe, Kurt H. 1908–1922. Die altägyptischen Pyramidentexte. 4 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs. Reprint: Hildesheim: Georg Olms, 1969. http://www.lib.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/eos/eos_title.pl?callnum=PJ1553.A1_1908_cop3
  52. Simpson, William Kelly (ed.). 2003. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  53. te Velde, Herman. 1995. Theology, Priests, and Worship in Ancient Egypt. In Civlizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 3, ed. Jack M. Sasson, 1731–1749. New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
  54. Wilson, John A. 1969. Egyptian Myths, Tales, and Mortuary Texts. In Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed, ed. James B. Pritchard, 3–36. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Yahuda, A.S. 1933. The Language of the Pentateuch in its Relation to Egyptian. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Zevit, Ziony. 1990. Three Ways to Look at the Ten Plagues. Bible Review 6/3: 16–23. 42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations