A Strategy for Structuring and Formalising Attack Patterns
- 1.5k Downloads
We have created a framework for modelling security that divides computer incidents into their stages of access, use and effect. In addition, we have developed a three-layer architectural model to examine incidents with the social, logical and physical levels. Our ontology that combines the architectural and incident models provides the basis for a suitable semantics for attack patterns, where the entities and relationships between them can be precisely defined. The current informality of these patterns means that their utility is limited to manual use, so we plan to adapt existing work on formalising design patterns to attack patterns, to aid the detection of attack patterns leading to the possible creation of effective defensive controls. A specification in logic, which is progressively refined into code, is a common method of developing high integrity and secure software, but there are additional issues in system protection, as the system is a diverse set of components housing different and unrelated functionality rather than a single program. The attack patterns form a logical specification, which can be intersected with the model of the defence to determine the corresponding defensive observations and actions to counter the attacks. This would allow convincing reasoning about possible defensive response measures, and holds out the possibility of proving security against certain types of attacks. We outline a roadmap for formulating attack patterns in our ontology and then translating them in logic.
KeywordsDesign Pattern Propositional Knowledge Attack Tree Attack Pattern Security Pattern
- 1.Blackwell C. A security ontology for incident analysis. In: 6th Cyber security and information intelligence research workshop. New York: ACM press; 2010.Google Scholar
- 2.Blackwell C. A Framework for investigative questioning in incident analysis and response. In: 7th IFIP WG 11.9 International conference on digital forensics. Springer Advances in Digital Forensics VII; 2011.Google Scholar
- 3.Howard M. Attack surface: mitigate security risks by minimizing the code you expose to untrusted users. MSDN magazine; 2004. http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163882.aspx. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 4.Blackwell C. A forensic framework for incident analysis applied to the insider threat. In: 3rd ICST international conference on digital forensics and cyber crime. Berlin: Springer; 2011.Google Scholar
- 5.Howard JD. An analysis of security incidents on the internet, 1989–1995. PhD thesis. Carnegie-Mellon University. 1997. www.cert.org/archive/pdf/JHThesis.pdfy. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 6.Howard JD, Longstaff TA. A common language for computer security incidents. Sandia National Laboratories; 1998. http://www.cert.org/research/taxonomy_988667.pdf.Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 7.Schneier B. Attack trees: modeling security threats. Dr. Dobb’s J; 1999.Google Scholar
- 8.Hutchins EM, Cloppert MJ, Amin RM. Intelligence-driven computer network defense informed by analysis of adversary campaigns and intrusion kill chains. In: 6th Annual international conference on information warfare and security, Washington, DC; 2011. www.lockheedmartin.com/content/dam/lockheed/data/corporate/documents/LM-White-Paper-Intel-Driven-Defense.pdf. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.Google Scholar
- 9.Whittaker JA, Thompson HH. How to break software security. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley; 2001.Google Scholar
- 10.Zachman J. A framework for information systems architecture. IBM Syst J. 1987;26(3).Google Scholar
- 11.Sherwood J, Clark A, Lynas D. Enterprise security architecture, a business driven approach. San Francisco: CMP Books; 2005.Google Scholar
- 13.Hafiz M, Adamczyk P, Johnson RE. Growing a pattern language (For Security). In: Proceedings of the 27th object-oriented programming, systems, languages and applications. OOPSLA; 2012.Google Scholar
- 14.Fantl J. Knowledge how. In: EN Zalta editor. The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Winter 2012 Edition). http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/knowledge-how. Accessed 23 Sept 2013
- 15.Barnum S, Sethi A. Attack patterns as a knowledge resource for building secure software. Cigital Inc. 2007. http://capec.mitre.org/documents/Attack_Patterns-Knowing_Your_Enemies_in_Order_to_Defeat_Them-Paper.pdf. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 16.Gamma E, Helm R, Johnson R, Vlissides J. Design patterns: elements of reusable object-oriented software. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley; 1995.Google Scholar
- 17.Alexander C, Ishikawa S, Silverstein M. A pattern language: towns, buildings. Construction, New York: Oxford University Press; 1977.Google Scholar
- 18.Moore AP, Ellison RJ, Linger RC. Attack modeling for information security and survivability. No. CMU-SEI-2001-TN-001. Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA; 2001.Google Scholar
- 19.Hoglund G, McGraw G. Exploiting software: how to break code. Addison-Wesley; 2004.Google Scholar
- 20.Barnum S, Sethi A. Introduction to attack patterns. Cigital Inc. 2006 (revised 14 May 2013). https://buildsecurityin.us-cert.gov/bsi/articles/knowledge/attack/585-BSI.html. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 21.Fernandez EB, Pelaez JC, Larrondo-Petrie MM. Attack patterns: a new forensic and design tool. In: 3rd Annual IFIP WG 11.9 international conference on digital forensics. Berlin: Springer. 2007.Google Scholar
- 22.Mitre Corporation. Common attack pattern enumeration and classification (CAPEC). Mitre Corporation. http://www.capec.mitre.org. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 23.Blackwell C. Formally modelling attack patterns for forensic analysis. In: 5th International conference on cybercrime forensics education and training. Canterbury; 2011.Google Scholar
- 24.Swiderski F, Snyder W. Threat modeling. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press; 2004.Google Scholar
- 25.Noy NF, McGuinness DL. Ontology development 101: a guide to creating your first ontology. Technical Report KSL-01-05. Stanford Knowledge Systems Laboratory; 2001.Google Scholar
- 26.Bayley I, Zhu H. Formalising design patterns in predicate logic. In: 5th IEEE international conference on software engineering and formal, methods; 2007. pp. 25–36.Google Scholar
- 27.Bayley I, Zhu H. Specifying behavioural features of design patterns in first order logic. In: 32nd Annual IEEE international computer software and applications conference. COMPSAC’08. IEEE; 2008. pp. 203–10.Google Scholar
- 28.Abrial J-R. The B-Book: assigning programs to meanings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
- 29.Mitre Corporation. Common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVE). Mitre Corporation. http://www.cve.mitre.org. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 30.Mitre Corporation. Common weaknesses enumeration (CWE). Mitre Corporation. http://www.cwe.mitre.org. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 31.Schumacher M, Fernandez-Buglioni E, Hybertson D, Buschmann F, Sommerlad P. Security patterns: integrating security and systems engineering. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley; 2005.Google Scholar
- 32.Kowalski R. Computational logic and human thinking: how to be artificially intelligent. Cambridge University Press; 2011.Google Scholar
- 33.Robertson T. Essential vs. Accidental Properties. In: EN Zalta editor. The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition). http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/essential-accidental. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 34.Garson J. Modal Logic. In: EN Zalta editor. The stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Spring 2013 Edition). http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2013/entries/logic-modal. Accessed 23 Sept 2013.
- 35.Antoniou G, van Harmelen F. A semantic web primer. 2nd ed. MA, London: MIT Press; 2008.Google Scholar
- 37.Fowler M. UML distilled: a brief guide to the standard object modeling language. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley Professional; 2003.Google Scholar