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Critical infrastructure protection is a very hard problem, which has been widely tackled in the last 20 years by experts coming from different fields (security managers, university researchers, companies, etc.). The main aim of the research activity has been to develop a deeper understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems, in order to provide efficient and effective strategies to reduce the risk of attacks and their consequences. The “Railway Infrastructure Security” book arises with the scope of improving this understanding with particular reference to the Railway Infrastructure Systems (RISs), which notwithstanding their symbolic and economic value have not gained the proper attention. To this aim, the book collects different experiences coming from international security experts, academic authorities and leading railway service providers. In this context, a significant part of the book is devoted to the presentation of the results achieved during the METRIP project (Methodological Tool for Railway Infrastructure Protection), partially supported by the European Commission, Directorate-General Home Affairs. This project, which arose with the aim of filling the gap observed in the awareness of the RIS security problems, provides methodological tools for the identification of RIS security needs and for the improvements of their protection.