Air Quality Effects on Human Health
An integrated model system based on the impact-pathway chain, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), has been developed, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. In this study, we apply the EVA system to Europe, and perform a detailed assessment of past, present, and future health-cost externalities of the total air pollution levels in Europe, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011, and 2020. Furthermore we perform a detailed analysis of health-related external costs from the ten major emission sectors and their relative contributions.
The paper contains a short description of the EVA system and the results from the assessment of the main contributors. The overall conclusion from the analysis of the ten major emission sectors in Europe is that the main contributors to health-related external costs are major power production, agriculture, road traffic, and non-industrial domestic combustion, including wood combustion. We conclude that when regulating the emissions of ammonia from the agricultural sector, both the impacts on nature and on human health should be taken into account. This study confirms that air pollution constitutes a serious problem to human health and that the related external costs are considerable.
KeywordsExternal Cost Economic Valuation Chemistry Transport Model Human Health Impact Integrate Model System
The present study is a part of the research of the ‘Center for Energy, Environment and Health (CEEH)’, financed by The Danish Strategic Research Program on Sustainable Energy under contract no 2104-06-0027. Homepage: www.ceeh.dk.
- 1.Amann M, Bertok I, Cabala R, Cofala J, Heyes C, Gyarfas F, Klimont Z, Schöpp W, Wagner F (2005) A final set of scenarios for the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) programme. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Austria) CAFE Scenario Analysis Report Nr. 6. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/rains/CAFE_files/CAFE-D3.pdf
- 2.Andersen MS, Frohn LM, Nielsen JS, Nielsen M, Jensen JB, Jensen SS, Christensen J, Brandt J (2006) EVA – a non-linear, Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution. In: Biennial conference of the International Society for Ecological Economics, New Delhi, December 2006Google Scholar
- 3.Andersen MS, Frohn LM, Brandt J, Jensen SS (2007) External effects from power production and the treatment of wind energy (and other renewables) in the Danish energy taxation system. In: Deketelaere K, Milne JE, Kreiser LA, Ashiabor H (eds) Critical issues in environmental taxation: international and comparative perspectives: vol IV. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 319–336Google Scholar
- 4.Andersen MS, Frohn LM, Nielsen JS, Nielsen M, Jensen SS, Christensen JH, Brandt J (2008) A non-linear Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution. In: Proceedings of the European association of environmental and resource economists 16th annual conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 28 June 2008, p 23Google Scholar
- 5.Brandt J, Silver JD, Christensen JH, Andersen MS, Geels C, Gross A, Hansen AB, Hansen KM, Hedegaard GB, Skjøth CA (2010) Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system. In: Proceedings from the international conference on energy, environment and health – optimisation of future energy systems, Carlsberg Academy, Valby, Denmark, 31 May–02 June 2010, p 5Google Scholar
- 6.Brandt J, Silver JD, Frohn LM, Geels C, Gross A, Hansen AB, Hansen KM, Hedegaard GB, Skjøth CA, Villadsen H, Zare A, Christensen JH (2012) An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport. Atmos Environ 53:156–176. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 7.Brandt J, Silver JD, Christensen JH, Andersen MS, Bønløkke J, Sigsgaard T, Geels C, Gross A, Hansen AB, Hansen KM, Hedegaard GB, Kaas E, Frohn LM (2013) Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach. Atmos Chem Phys 13:7725–7746. www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/7725/2013/. doi: 10.5194/acp-13-7725-2013
- 8.Brandt J, Silver JD, Christensen JH, Andersen MS, Bønløkke J, Sigsgaard T, Geels C, Gross A, Hansen AB, Hansen KM, Hedegaard GB, Kaas E, Frohn LM (2013) Assessment of past, present and future health-cost externalities of air pollution in Europe and the contribution from international ship traffic using the EVA model system. Atmos Chem Phys 13:7747–7764. www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/7747/2013/. doi: 10.5194/acp-13-7747-2013
- 11.EU (2004) Modelling and assessment of the health impact of particulate matter and ozone. Economic commission for Europe. Executive body for the convention on long-range transboundary air pollution, Working group on effects. Twenty-third session, Geneva, 1–3 Sept 2004Google Scholar
- 15.Frohn LM, Brandt J, Hertel O, Christensen JH, Geels C, Andersen MS, Nielsen JS, Frydendall J, Hvidberg M, Jensen SS, Petersen J, Madsen PV (2006) Assessment of air pollution related damages on human health – and the subsequent costs. In: Proceedings from the 3rd GLOREAM/EURASAP workshop on modern developments in modelling and chemical data analysis, Apeldoorn, The Netherlands, September 2005, p 8Google Scholar
- 16.Frohn LM, Andersen MS, Geels C, Brandt J, Christensen JH, Hansen KM, Nielsen JS, Hertel O, Skjøth CA, Madsen PV (2007) EVA – an integrated model system for assessing external costs related to air pollution emissions. A contribution to ACCENT T&TP. In: Proceedings from the 2nd ACCENT symposium, p 10. http://www.accent-network.org/
- 19.Watkiss P, Pye S, Holland M (2005) CAFE CBA: baseline analysis 2000 to 2020. Service contract for carrying out cost-benefit analysis of air quality related issues, in particular in the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) Programme, AEA Technology Environment, Oxon, UK. http://www.cafe-cba.org/assets/baseline_analysis_2000-2020_05-05.pdf