InnoTracing: A Framework to Investigate the Moment-to-Moment Unfolding of Leadership, Creativity, and Innovation

  • Ian Sutherland
  • Paul BlazekEmail author
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
  • Hans Lundberg
  • Hagen Habicht
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Production Engineering book series (LNPE)


In researching the crucial drivers in innovation processes, it becomes more and more clear that social interactions at a microlevel play an important role when it comes to user innovation. InnoTracing sheds light on understanding what happens in the black box of emergent, situated processes by looking at what participating users regard as their particular “moments of significance” (MOS). The usage of the newly developed software tool InnoTrace allows real-time data gathering, aggregating, and analyzing and works within the methodological concept InnoTracing as fundamental enabler for identifying previously invisible innovation and leadership effects. This software and methodology combination offers researchers and companies the ability to understand how collaboration processes among innovators work and provides valuable insights on how to create a supporting environment.


Innovation Leadership Traceability Management Software 



We thank the Peter Pribilla Foundation who made this project possible by bringing us together as a team and by funding part of this research.


  1. 1.
    Alvesson, M.: Leadership studies: From procedure and abstraction to reflexivity and situation. Leadersh. Quart. 7(4), 455–485 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvesson, M., Sveningsson, S.: Managers doing leadership: the extra-ordinarization of the mundane. Hum. Relat. 56(12), 1435–1459 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alvesson, M., Sveningsson, S.: The great disappearing act: difficulties in doing leadership. Leadersh. Quart. 14, 359–381 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baldwin, C., Von Hippel, E.: Modeling a paradigm shift: from producer innovation to user and open collaborative innovation. Organ. Sci. 22(6), 1399–1417 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bansemir, B.: Organizational Innovation Communities. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bansemir, B., Neyer, A. K.: From idea management systems to interactive innovation management systems: designing for interaction and knowledge exchange. pp. 1–10, Nürnberg (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bathurts, R., Jackson, B., Statler, M.: Leading aesthetically in uncertain times. Leadership 6(3), 311–330 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Belova, O.: The event of seeing: a phenomenological perspective on visual sense-making. Cult. Organ. 12(2), 93–107 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolden, R.: Distributed leadership in organizations: a review of theory and research. Int. J. Manage. Rev. 13, 251–269 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bougon, M.G.: Congregate cognitive maps: a unified dynamic theory of organization and strategy. J. Manage. Stud. 29(3), 369–389 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Buchanan, D.: The role of photography in organizations research: a re-engineering case illustration. J. Manage. Inquiry 10(2), 151–164 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cerne, M., Jaklic, M., Skerlavaj, M.: Authentic leadership, creativity, and innovation: a multilevel perspective. Leadership 9(1), 63–85 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cohen, W.M., Levinthal, D.: Fortune favors the prepared firm. Manage. Sci. 40(2), 227–251 (1994)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corbin, J., Strauss, A.: Grounded theory research: procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qual. Sociol. 13(1), 3–21 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Corbin, J., Strauss, A.: Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Approaches for Developing Grounded Theory, 3rd edn. Sage, Los Angeles (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Crevani, L., Lindgren, M., Packendorff, J.: Leadership, not leaders: on the study of leadership as practices and interactions. Scand. J. Manag. 26, 77–86 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Daft, R.L., Weick, K.E.: Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Acad. Manag. Rev. 9(2), 284 (1984)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Denis, J.L., Lamothe, L., Langley, A.: The dynamics of collective leadership and strategic change in pluralistic organizations. Acad. Manage. J. 44, 809–837 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Eden, C.: Strategy development as a social process. J. Manage. Stud. 29(6), 799–812 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foxall, G.R., Murphy, F.S., Tierney, J.D.: Market development in practice: a case study of user-initiated product innovation. J. Mark. Manage. 1, 201–211 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frey, K., Lüthje, C.: Antecedents and consequences of interaction quality in virtual end-user communities. Creativity Innov. Manage. 20(1), 22–35 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garfinkel, H.: Studies in Ethnomethodology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1967)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grint, K.: Problems, problems, problems: the social construction of leadership. Hum. Relat. 58(11), 1467–1494 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gronn, P.: Distributed properties: a new architecture for leadership. Educ. Manage. Adm. Leadersh. 28, 317–338 (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Habicht, H.: Universität und Image: Entwicklung und Erprobung eines stakeholderorientierten Erhebungsinstrumentariums (1. Aufl., p. 421). Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hansen, H., Ropo, A., Sauer, E.: Aesthetic leadership. Leadersh. Quart. 18, 544–560 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Harhoff, D., Henkel, J., Von Hippel, E.: Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: how users benefit by freely revealing their innovations. Res. Policy 32(10), 1753–1769 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hau, Y.S., Kim, Y.G.: Why would online gamers share their innovation-conducive knowledge in the online game user community? Integrating individual motivations and social capital perspectives. Comput. Hum. Behav. 27(2), 956–970 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Iszatt-White, M.: Methodological crises and contextual solutions: an ethnomethodologically informed approach to understanding leadership. Leadership 7(2), 119–135 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kempster, S., Parry, K.W.: Grounded theory and leadership research: a critical realist perspective. Leadersh. Quart. 22, 106–120 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kort, E.D.: What, after all, is leadership? Leadership and plural action. Leadersh. Quart. 19(4), 409–425 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ladkin, D.: Leading beautifully: how mastery, congruence and purpose create the aesthetic of embodied leadership practice. Leadersh. Quart. 19, 31–41 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ladkin, D.: Rethinking leadership: a new look at old leadership questions. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lakhani, K.R., Von Hippel, E.: How open source software works: free user-to-user assistance. Res. Policy 32(6), 923–943 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Laursen, K., Salter, A.: Open for innovation: the role of openness in explaining innovation performance among U.K. manufacturing firms. Strateg. Manag. J. 27(2), 131–150 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lumby, J.: Collective leadership of local school systems: power, autonomy and ethics. Educ. Manage. Adm. and Leadersh. 37, 310–328 (2009)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meindl, J.: The romance of leadership as a follower-centric theory: a social constructionist perspective. Leadersh. Quart. 6, 329–341 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Morrison, P.D., Roberts, J.H., Von Hippel, E.: Determinants of user innovation and innovation sharing in a local market. Manage. Sci. 46(12), 1513 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Neyer, A.-K., Bullinger, A.C., Moeslein, K.M.: Integrating inside and outside innovators: a sociotechnical systems perspective. R&D Manage. 39(4), 410–419 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Parry, K.W.: Grounded theory and social process: a new direction for leadership research. Leadersh. Quart. 9(1), 85–105 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pearce, C.L., Conger, J.A.: Shared Leadership: reframing the hows and whys of leadership. Sage, London (2003)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pearce, C.L., Conger, J.A., Locke, E.A.: Shared leadership theory. Leadersh. Quart. 19, 622–628 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pink, S.: Doing Visual Ethnography. Sage, London (2007)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spillane, J.P.: Distributed Leadership. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco (2006)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tegarden, D.P., Sheetz, S.D.: Group cognitive mapping: a methodology and system for capturing and evaluating managerial and organizational cognition. Omega 31(2), 113 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tolman, E.C.: Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychol. Rev. 55(4), 189–208 (1948)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Uhl-Bien, M.: Relational leadership theory: exploring the social processes of learship and organizing. Leadersh. Quart. 17, 654–676 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Veryzer, R.W.: Borja de Mozota, B.: The Impact of User-Oriented Design on New Product Development: An Examination of Fundamental Relationships*. J. Prod. Innov. Manage 22(2), 128–143 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Von Hippel, E.: Sticky information and the locus of problem solving: implications for innovation. Manage. Sci. 40(4), 429–439 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Von Hippel, E., Von Krogh, G.: Free revealing and the private-collective model for innovation incentives. R&D Manage. 36(3), 295–306 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Warren, S.: Show me hot it feels to work here: using photography to research organizational aesthetics. Ephemera 2(3), 224–245 (2002)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Washbush, J.B.: There is no such thing as leadership, revisited. Manage. Decis. 43(7/8), 1078–1085 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    West, J., Lakhani, K.R.: Getting Clear About Communities in Open Innovation. Ind. Innov. 15(2), 223–231 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wood, M., Ladkin, D.: The event’s the thing: brief encounters with the leaderful moment. In: James, K.T., Collins, J. (eds.) Leadership Perspectives: Knowledge into Action, pp. 15–28. Palgrave-Macmillan, London (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian Sutherland
    • 1
  • Paul Blazek
    • 2
    Email author
  • Birgit Penzenstadler
    • 3
  • Hans Lundberg
    • 4
  • Hagen Habicht
    • 5
  1. 1.IEDC-Bled School of ManagementBledSlovenia
  2. 2.cyLEDGE Media GmbHViennaAustria
  3. 3.School of Information and Computer SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  4. 4.School of Business and EconomicsLinnaeus UniversityVäxjöSweden
  5. 5.HHL Leipzig Graduate School of ManagementCenter for Leading Innovation and CooperationLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations