Embedded Web Technologies for the Internet of Things

  • Walter Colitti
  • Nguyen Thanh Long
  • Niccolò De Caro
  • Kris Steenhaut
Part of the Smart Sensors, Measurement and Instrumentation book series (SSMI, volume 9)


The adoption of open standard communication protocols based on embedded IP and Web technologies is a key building block for the realization of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision, where trillions of smart objects will be connected and will open up exciting possibilities for the creation of new and innovative services. Embedded Web protocols are interoperable, reduce the overall IoT architectural complexity, and deliver a long term value as it has already been demonstrated by the success of the Internet and of the Web. This chapter discusses on the adoption of IP and in particular of Web technologies in smart objects for the realization of the Web of Things (WoT). The work reviews the main protocols and discusses on how and why they improve interoperability, reduce the overall IoT architectural complexity and facilitate the integration between the IoT and Web applications.


Wireless Sensor Network Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol Domain Name System Smart Object 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Atzori, L., Iera, A., Morabito, G.: The internet of things: a survey. Comput. Net. 54,(15) 2787–2805 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miorandi, D., Sicari, S., De Pellegrini, F., Chlamtac, I.: Internet of things: vision, applications and research challenges. Comput. Net. 10(7), 1497–1516 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ko, J., Eriksson, J., Tsiftes, N., Dawson-Haggerty, S., Vasseur, J. P., Durvy, M., Terzis, A., Dunkels, A., Culler, D.: Beyond interoperability pushing the performance of sensor network IP stacks. In: 9th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, November 2011Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zorzi, M., Gluhak, A., Lange, S., Bassi, A.: From today’s INTRAnet of things to a future INTERnet of things: a wireless- and mobility-related view. IEEE Wireless Commun. 17(6), 44–51 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dunkels, A., Eriksson, J., Finne, N., Österlind, F.: Low-Power IPv6 for the internet of things. In: 9th International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems, 1–6, June 2012Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shelby, Z.: Embedded web services. IEEE Wireless Commun. 17(6), 52–57 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hui, J.W., Culler, D.E.: IPv6 in low-power wireless networks. Proc. IEEE. 98(11), 1865–1878 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Wilde, E.: A Resource oriented architecture for the web of things. In: Internet of Things 2010 International Conference (IoT 2010), November 2010Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vasseur, J.P., Dunkels, A.: Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet. 1st ed. Morgan Kaufmann. Burlington, Massachusetts (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bormann, C., Castellani, A.P., Shelby, Z.: CoAP: an application protocol for billions of tiny internet nodes. IEEE Int. Comput. 16(2), 62–67 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., Frank, B.: Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-core-coap-13, 2012 (Work in progress).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Winter, T., Thubert, P., Brandt, A., Hui, J., Kelsey, R., Levis, P., Pister, K., Struik, R., Vasseur, JP., Alexander, R.: In: RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks, RFC 6550, 2012Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gaddour, O., Koubâa, A.: RPL in a nutshell: a survey. Comput. Net. 56(14), 3163–3178 (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zeng, D., Guo, S., Cheng, Z.: The web of things: a survey. J. Commun. 6(6), 424–438 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guinard, D., Trifa, V., Pham, T., Liechti, O.: Towards physical mashups in the web of things. In: 6th IEEE International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems, June 2009Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Priyantha, N.B., Kansal, A., Goraczko, M., Zhao, F.: Tiny web ser- vices: design and implementation of interoperable and evolvable sensor networks. In: The 6th ACM conference on Embedded Network Sensor Systems (SenSys ’08) 253–266, 2008Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jammes, F., Smit, H.: Service-oriented paradigms in industrial automation. IEEE Trans. Industr. Inf. 1(1), 62–70 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Castellani, A. P., Gheda, M., Bui, N., Rossi, M., Zorzi, M.: Web services for the internet of things through CoAP and EXI. In: IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2011Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kamilaris, A., Trifa, V., Pitsillides, A.: The smart home meets the web of things. Int. J. Ad Hoc Ubiquitous Comput. 7(3), 145–154 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yazar, D., Dunkels, A.: Efficient application integration in IP-based sensor networks. 1st ACM Workshop on Embedded Sensing Systems for Energy Effciency in, Buildings, 43–48 November 2009Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schor, L., Sommer, P., Wattenhofer, R.: Towards a zero-configuration wireless sensor network architecture for smart buildings. In; Proceedings of 1st ACM Workshop On Embedded Systems For Energy-Efficient Buildings (BuildSys: pp. 31–36. USA, Berkeley) 2009Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hartke, K.: Observing Resources in CoAP, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-core-observe-07, 2012 (Work in progress)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shelby, Z.: Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link Format. RFC 6690, 2013 (Work in progress)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Colitti, W., Steenhaut, K., De Caro, N., Buta, B., Dobrota, V.: Evaluation of constrained Application Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 18th IEEE International Workshop of Local and Metropolitan Area Networks (LanMan), 1–6 November 2011Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Maenpaa, J., JIMENEZ Bolonio, J., Loreto, S.: Using RELOAD and CoAP for wide area sensor and actuator networking. EURASIP J. Wireless Commun. Net. 2012, 121. Springer (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kovatsch, M., Mayer, S., Ostermaier, B.: Moving application logic from the firmware to the cloud: towards the thin server architecture for the internet of things. In: 6th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS 2012), July 2012Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kovatsch, M., Duquennoy, S., Dunkels, A.: A low-power CoAP for contiki. In: 8th IEEE International Conference on Mobile Ad-hoc and Sensor Systems, October 2011Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shelby Z., Chauvenet, C.: The IPSO Application Framework, draft-ipso-app-framework-04, 2012, (Work in progress)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lerche, C., Hartke, K., Kovatsch, M.: Industry adoption of the internet of things: a constrained application protocol survey. In: 7th International Workshop on Service Oriented Architectures in Converging Networked Environments, September 2012Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kovatsch, M.: Demo abstract: humanCoAP interaction with copper. In: 7th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems, June 2011Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Castellani, A., Loreto, S., Rahman, A., Fossati, T., Dijk, E.: Best Practices for HTTP-CoAP Mapping Implementation, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-core-http-mapping-02, 2013 (Work in progress)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter Colitti
    • 1
  • Nguyen Thanh Long
    • 1
  • Niccolò De Caro
    • 1
  • Kris Steenhaut
    • 1
  1. 1.Department ETRO-INDIVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations