Advertisement

The Effects of Presence Induced by Smartphone Applications on Tourism: Application to Cultural Heritage Attractions

  • Keumsil Lee
  • Hyung Ryong Lee
  • Sunny Ham
Conference paper

Abstract

Increased use of mobile devices in the tourism industry enhances tourist satisfaction by improving their overall experience in particular settings. Presence, in this case, is the state of one’s subjective recognition when experiencing in virtual realms beyond realistic physical and tangible spaces. The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationships between the presence brought upon the use of smartphone applications, the touristic experience, and tourism satisfaction, when smartphone applications are applied to cultural heritage attractions. A survey was employed for the data collection at cultural heritage attractions in Korea from tourists who had used smartphone applications during their travels. The study found a significant relationship between presence of smartphone applications and touristic experience, which also significantly affected overall tourist satisfaction. The study contributes to the body of knowledge on the impact and effects of “presence” when smartphone applications are utilized in tourism.

Keywords

Smartphone application Presence Augmented reality Mobile technology 

References

  1. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411.Google Scholar
  2. Azuma, R. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(4), 355–385.Google Scholar
  3. Biocca, F., Harms, C., & Burgoon, J. (2003). Toward a more robust theory and measure of social presence: Review and suggested criteria. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 12(5), 456–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, B., & Chalmers, M. (2003). Tourism and mobile technology. In Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work. Kluwer Academic Press: Helsinki.Google Scholar
  5. Chi, H. L., Kang, S. C., & Wang, X. (2013). Research trends and opportunities of augmented reality applications in architecture, engineering, and construction. Automation in Construction, 33, 116–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durlach, N., & Slater, M. (2000). Presence in shared virtual environments and virtual togetherness. Presence, 9(2), 214–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Graetzel, U., & Jamal, T. (2009). Conceptualizing the creative tourist class: Technology, mobility and tourism experiences. Tourism Analysis, 14, 471–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Han, S. Y. (2006). The experience realms of heritage tourism: from the perspective of utilitarian and hedonic value. Journal of Tourism Sciences, 30(3), 11–28.Google Scholar
  10. Kang, M. H., & Gretzel, U. (2012). Effects of podcast tours on tourists experiences in a national park. Tourism Management, 33(2), 440–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kim, T., & Biocca, F. (1997). Telepresence via television: two dimensions of telepresence may have different connections to memory and persuasion. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 3(2), 1–24.Google Scholar
  12. Kozak, M., & Rimmington, M. (2000). Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, holiday destination. Journal of Travel Research, 38, 260–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence explicated. Communication Theory, 14(1), 27–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Light, D. (1995). Visitors’ use of interpretive media at heritage sites. Leisure Studies, 14(2), 132–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lombard, M, & Ditton, T. (1997).At the heart of it all: The concept of telepresence. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (on-line serial), 3(2).Google Scholar
  16. Mehmetoglu, M., & Engen, M. (2011). Pine and gilmore’s concept of experience economy and its dimensions: An empirical examination in tourism. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 12(4), 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Oh, H., Fiore, A. M., & Jeoung, M. (2007). Measuring experience economy concepts: Tourism applications. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on theconsumer. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  19. Pine, B. J, I. I., & Gilmore, H. J. (1999). The experience economy: work is theatre and every business a stage. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  20. Richards, G. (2001). The experience industry and the creation of attractions. In cultural attractions and European tourism, UK: CABI Publishing.Google Scholar
  21. Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., & Regenbrecht, H. (2001). The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10(3), 266–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shelton, B. E. (2003). How augmented reality helps students learn dynamic spatial relationships. Unpublished doctoral dissertation: University of Washington.Google Scholar
  23. Sheridan, T. B. (1992). Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence, 1(1), 120–125.Google Scholar
  24. Short, J., Williams, E, & Christie, B. (1976).The social psychology of telecommunications. London: WileyGoogle Scholar
  25. Stamboulis, Y., & Skayannis, P. (2003). Innovation strategies and technology for experience-based tourism. Tourism Management, 24, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sternberg, E. (1997). The iconography of the tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 24(4), 951–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stevens, B., Jerrams-Smith, J., Heathcote, D., & Callear, D. (2002). Assessing object-presence with projection-augmented models. Presence, 11(1), 79–92.Google Scholar
  28. Witmer, B. G., & Singer, M. J. (1998). Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7(3), 225–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Hospitality and TourismSejong UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Tourism ManagementGachon UniversitySeongnamKorea

Personalised recommendations